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      Type I Interferon Regulates the Survival and Functionality of B Cells in Rainbow Trout

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          Abstract

          Interferons (IFNs) orchestrate antiviral responses in jawed vertebrates and can be classified into three types based on different aspects of their genomic organization, structure and receptors through which they signal and function. Generally, type I and type III IFNs include cytokines that directly induce an antiviral response, whereas type II IFNs are well-known for their immunomodulatory role during viral infections. In mammals, type I IFNs have been shown to also regulate many aspects of B cell development and differentiation. Yet, these functions have been only faintly investigated for teleost IFNs. Thus, in the current study, we have examined the effects of a model type I rainbow trout IFN molecule (IFNa) on blood naïve (IgM +IgD +) B cells, comparing them to those exerted by type II IFN (IFNγ). Our results demonstrate that IFNa increases the survival of naïve rainbow trout B cells, in the absence of lymphoproliferative effects, by rescuing them from spontaneous apoptosis. Additionally, IFNa increased the phagocytic capacity of blood IgM +IgD + B cells and augmented the number of IgM-secreting cells in blood leukocyte cultures. IFNγ, on the other hand, had only minor effects up-regulating IgM secretion, whereas it increased the phagocytic capacity of IgM cells in the cultures. Finally, given the recent identification of 9 mx genes in rainbow trout, we have also established which of these genes were transcriptionally regulated in blood naïve B cells in response to IFNa. This study points to a previously undescribed role for teleost type I IFNs in the regulation of B cell responses.

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          Most cited references 45

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          Antiviral actions of interferons.

          Tremendous progress has been made in understanding the molecular basis of the antiviral actions of interferons (IFNs), as well as strategies evolved by viruses to antagonize the actions of IFNs. Furthermore, advances made while elucidating the IFN system have contributed significantly to our understanding in multiple areas of virology and molecular cell biology, ranging from pathways of signal transduction to the biochemical mechanisms of transcriptional and translational control to the molecular basis of viral pathogenesis. IFNs are approved therapeutics and have moved from the basic research laboratory to the clinic. Among the IFN-induced proteins important in the antiviral actions of IFNs are the RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR), the 2',5'-oligoadenylate synthetase (OAS) and RNase L, and the Mx protein GTPases. Double-stranded RNA plays a central role in modulating protein phosphorylation and RNA degradation catalyzed by the IFN-inducible PKR kinase and the 2'-5'-oligoadenylate-dependent RNase L, respectively, and also in RNA editing by the IFN-inducible RNA-specific adenosine deaminase (ADAR1). IFN also induces a form of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS2) and the major histocompatibility complex class I and II proteins, all of which play important roles in immune response to infections. Several additional genes whose expression profiles are altered in response to IFN treatment and virus infection have been identified by microarray analyses. The availability of cDNA and genomic clones for many of the components of the IFN system, including IFN-alpha, IFN-beta, and IFN-gamma, their receptors, Jak and Stat and IRF signal transduction components, and proteins such as PKR, 2',5'-OAS, Mx, and ADAR, whose expression is regulated by IFNs, has permitted the generation of mutant proteins, cells that overexpress different forms of the proteins, and animals in which their expression has been disrupted by targeted gene disruption. The use of these IFN system reagents, both in cell culture and in whole animals, continues to provide important contributions to our understanding of the virus-host interaction and cellular antiviral response.
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            IFN-lambdas mediate antiviral protection through a distinct class II cytokine receptor complex.

            We report here the identification of a ligand-receptor system that, upon engagement, leads to the establishment of an antiviral state. Three closely positioned genes on human chromosome 19 encode distinct but paralogous proteins, which we designate interferon-lambda1 (IFN-lambda1), IFN-lambda2 and IFN-lambda3 (tentatively designated as IL-29, IL-28A and IL-28B, respectively, by HUGO). The expression of IFN-lambda mRNAs was inducible by viral infection in several cell lines. We identified a distinct receptor complex that is utilized by all three IFN-lambda proteins for signaling and is composed of two subunits, a receptor designated CRF2-12 (also designated as IFN-lambdaR1) and a second subunit, CRF2-4 (also known as IL-10R2). Both receptor chains are constitutively expressed on a wide variety of human cell lines and tissues and signal through the Jak-STAT (Janus kinases-signal transducers and activators of transcription) pathway. This receptor-ligand system may contribute to antiviral or other defenses by a mechanism similar to, but independent of, type I IFNs.
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              Type i interferons potently enhance humoral immunity and can promote isotype switching by stimulating dendritic cells in vivo.

              Type I interferons (IFN-I) are rapidly induced following infection and play a key role in nonspecific inhibition of virus replication. Here we have investigated the effects of IFN-I on the generation of antigen-specific antibody responses. The data show that IFN-I potently enhance the primary antibody response to a soluble protein, stimulating the production of all subclasses of IgG, and induce long-lived antibody production and immunological memory. In addition, endogenous production of IFN-I was shown to be essential for the adjuvant activity of CFA. Finally, IFN-I enhanced the antibody response and induced isotype switching when dendritic cells were the only cell type responding to IFN-I. The data reveal the potent adjuvant activity of IFN-I and their important role in linking innate and adaptive immunity.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Front Immunol
                Front Immunol
                Front. Immunol.
                Frontiers in Immunology
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                1664-3224
                09 July 2020
                2020
                : 11
                Affiliations
                1Animal Health Research Center (CISA-INIA) , Madrid, Spain
                2Scottish Fish Immunology Research Centre, School of Biological Sciences, University of Aberdeen , Aberdeen, United Kingdom
                Author notes

                Edited by: Lluis Tort, Autonomous University of Barcelona, Spain

                Reviewed by: Antonio Figueras, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), Spain; Luis Mercado, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Chile

                *Correspondence: Carolina Tafalla tafalla@ 123456inia.es

                This article was submitted to Comparative Immunology, a section of the journal Frontiers in Immunology

                Article
                10.3389/fimmu.2020.01494
                7363951
                Copyright © 2020 Benedicenti, Wang, Morel, Secombes, Soleto, Díaz-Rosales and Tafalla.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Page count
                Figures: 7, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 65, Pages: 15, Words: 9644
                Funding
                Funded by: European Research Council 10.13039/501100000781
                Funded by: Ministerio de Ciencia, Innovación y Universidades 10.13039/100014440
                Funded by: Comunidad de Madrid 10.13039/100012818
                Categories
                Immunology
                Original Research

                Immunology

                phagocytosis, teleost fish, igm, interferon (ifn), b cells

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