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      Inhibitory effect of different Dendrobium species on LPS-induced inflammation in macrophages via suppression of MAPK pathways

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          Abstract

          Dendrobii Caulis (DC), named ‘Shihu’ in Chinese, is a precious herb in traditional Chinese medicine. It is widely used to nourish stomach, enhance body fluid production, tonify “Yin” and reduce heat. More than thirty Dendrobium species are used as folk medicine. Some compounds from DC exhibit inhibitory effects on macrophage inflammation. In the present study, we compared the anti-inflammatory effects among eight Dendrobium species. The results provided evidences to support Dendrobium as folk medicine, which exerted its medicinal function partially by its inhibitory effects on inflammation. To investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of Dendrobium species, mouse macrophage cell line RAW264.7 was activated by lipopolysaccharide. The nitric oxide (NO) level was measured using Griess reagent while the pro-inflammatory cytokines were tested by ELISA. The protein expressions of inducible NO synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) phosphorylation were evaluated by Western blotting analysis. Among the eight Dendrobium species, both water extracts of D. thyrsiflorum B.S.Williams (DTW) and D. chrysotoxum Lindl (DCHW) showed most significant inhibitory effects on NO production in a concentration-dependent manner. DTW also significantly reduced TNF-α, MCP-1, and IL-6 production. Further investigations showed that DTW suppressed iNOS and COX-2 expression as well as ERK and JNK phosphorylation, suggesting that the inhibitory effects of DTW on LPS-induced macrophage inflammation was through the suppression of MAPK pathways. In conclusion, D. thyrsiflorum B.S.Williams was demonstrated to have potential to be used as alternative or adjuvant therapy for inflammation.

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          Most cited references 23

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          Review of research on Dendrobium, a prized folk medicine.

          Medicinal plants of the Dendrobium genus are highly prized, and hence, methodologies have been developed to authenticate Dendrobium drugs from its adulterants. Many bioactive constituents of Dendrobium species have been identified. The macromolecules included lectins; the enzymes chalcone synthase, sucrose synthase, and cytokinin oxidase; and polysaccharides. The polysaccharides display immunomodulatory and hepatoprotective activities. Alkaloids exhibit antioxidant, anticancer, and neuroprotective activities. Other compounds manifest antioxidant, anticancer, and immunomodulatory.
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            Control of macrophage metabolism and activation by mTOR and Akt signaling.

            Macrophages are pleiotropic cells that assume a variety of functions depending on their tissue of residence and tissue state. They maintain homeostasis as well as coordinate responses to stresses such as infection and metabolic challenge. The ability of macrophages to acquire diverse, context-dependent activities requires their activation (or polarization) to distinct functional states. While macrophage activation is well understood at the level of signal transduction and transcriptional regulation, the metabolic underpinnings are poorly understood. Importantly, emerging studies indicate that metabolic shifts play a pivotal role in control of macrophage activation and acquisition of context-dependent effector activities. The signals that drive macrophage activation impinge on metabolic pathways, allowing for coordinate control of macrophage activation and metabolism. Here we discuss how mTOR and Akt, major metabolic regulators and targets of such activation signals, control macrophage metabolism and activation. Dysregulated macrophage activities contribute to many diseases, including infectious, inflammatory, and metabolic diseases and cancer, thus a better understanding of metabolic control of macrophage activation could pave the way to the development of new therapeutic strategies.
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              Bioactive bibenzyl derivatives and fluorenones from Dendrobium nobile.

              Bioassay-guided fractionation of the 60% ethanol extract of the stems of Dendrobium nobile using the DPPH assay led to the isolation of two new bibenzyl derivatives, nobilin D (1) and nobilin E (2), and a new fluorenone, nobilone (3), together with seven known compounds (4-10). Their structures were determined on the basis of spectroscopic analyses. Compounds 1, 2, 4, 7, 8, and 10 exhibited significant antioxidant activity higher than or equivalent to vitamin C in the DPPH assay, and compounds 1, 3, 4, and 7-10 displayed higher antioxidant activity than vitamin C in the ORAC assay. Compounds 1, 2, and 10 also exhibited stronger inhibitory effects on NO production than resveratrol.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                CJNM
                Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines
                Elsevier
                1875-5364
                20 July 2018
                : 16
                : 7
                : 481-489
                Affiliations
                1Institute of Chinese Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China
                2State Key Laboratory of Phytochemistry and Plant Resources in West China, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China
                3Shenzhen Research Institute, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shenzhen 518057, China
                4Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650201, China
                Author notes
                *Corresponding author: PC Leung, Tel: 852-22528868, Fax: 852-26035248, E-mails: pingcleung@ 123456cuhk.edu.hk ; Hu JM, Tel: 86-871-6522-3264, Fax: 86-871-65223261, hujiangmiao@ 123456mail.kib.ac.cn

                These authors have no conflict of interest to declare.

                Article
                S1875-5364(18)30083-9
                10.1016/S1875-5364(18)30083-9
                30080646
                Copyright © 2018 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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