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      Understanding Molecular Plant–Nematode Interactions to Develop Alternative Approaches for Nematode Control

      Plants
      MDPI AG

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          Abstract

          Developing control measures of plant-parasitic nematodes (PPNs) rank high as they cause big crop losses globally. The growing awareness of numerous unsafe chemical nematicides and the defects found in their alternatives are calling for rational molecular control of the nematodes. This control focuses on using genetically based plant resistance and exploiting molecular mechanisms underlying plant–nematode interactions. Rapid and significant advances in molecular techniques such as high-quality genome sequencing, interfering RNA (RNAi) and gene editing can offer a better grasp of these interactions. Efficient tools and resources emanating from such interactions are highlighted herein while issues in using them are summarized. Their revision clearly indicates the dire need to further upgrade knowledge about the mechanisms involved in host-specific susceptibility/resistance mediated by PPN effectors, resistance genes, or quantitative trait loci to boost their effective and sustainable use in economically important plant species. Therefore, it is suggested herein to employ the impacts of these techniques on a case-by-case basis. This will allow us to track and optimize PPN control according to the actual variables. It would enable us to precisely fix the factors governing the gene functions and expressions and combine them with other PPN control tactics into integrated management.

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          Plant pathogens and integrated defence responses to infection.

          Plants cannot move to escape environmental challenges. Biotic stresses result from a battery of potential pathogens: fungi, bacteria, nematodes and insects intercept the photosynthate produced by plants, and viruses use replication machinery at the host's expense. Plants, in turn, have evolved sophisticated mechanisms to perceive such attacks, and to translate that perception into an adaptive response. Here, we review the current knowledge of recognition-dependent disease resistance in plants. We include a few crucial concepts to compare and contrast plant innate immunity with that more commonly associated with animals. There are appreciable differences, but also surprising parallels.
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            Contrasting mechanisms of defense against biotrophic and necrotrophic pathogens.

            It has been suggested that effective defense against biotrophic pathogens is largely due to programmed cell death in the host, and to associated activation of defense responses regulated by the salicylic acid-dependent pathway. In contrast, necrotrophic pathogens benefit from host cell death, so they are not limited by cell death and salicylic acid-dependent defenses, but rather by a different set of defense responses activated by jasmonic acid and ethylene signaling. This review summarizes results from Arabidopsis-pathogen systems regarding the contributions of various defense responses to resistance to several biotrophic and necrotrophic pathogens. While the model above seems generally correct, there are exceptions and additional complexities.
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              Plant signalling in symbiosis and immunity

              Plants encounter a myriad of microorganisms, particularly at the root–soil interface, that can invade with detrimental or beneficial outcomes. Prevalent beneficial associations between plants and microorganisms include those that promote plant growth by facilitating the acquisition of limiting nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus. But
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                (View ORCID Profile)
                Journal
                PLANCD
                Plants
                Plants
                MDPI AG
                2223-7747
                August 2022
                August 17 2022
                : 11
                : 16
                : 2141
                Article
                10.3390/plants11162141
                36015444
                8b554c78-755d-4154-818b-367f6e982291
                © 2022

                https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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