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      Collapse and rapid resumption of Atlantic meridional circulation linked to deglacial climate changes

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      Nature
      Springer Science and Business Media LLC

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          Abstract

          The Atlantic meridional overturning circulation is widely believed to affect climate. Changes in ocean circulation have been inferred from records of the deep water chemical composition derived from sedimentary nutrient proxies, but their impact on climate is difficult to assess because such reconstructions provide insufficient constraints on the rate of overturning. Here we report measurements of 231Pa/230Th, a kinematic proxy for the meridional overturning circulation, in a sediment core from the subtropical North Atlantic Ocean. We find that the meridional overturning was nearly, or completely, eliminated during the coldest deglacial interval in the North Atlantic region, beginning with the catastrophic iceberg discharge Heinrich event H1, 17,500 yr ago, and declined sharply but briefly into the Younger Dryas cold event, about 12,700 yr ago. Following these cold events, the 231Pa/230Th record indicates that rapid accelerations of the meridional overturning circulation were concurrent with the two strongest regional warming events during deglaciation. These results confirm the significance of variations in the rate of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation for abrupt climate changes.

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          INTCAL98 Radiocarbon Age Calibration, 24,000–0 cal BP

          The focus of this paper is the conversion of radiocarbon ages to calibrated (cal) ages for the interval 24,000–0 cal BP (Before Present, 0 cal BP = AD 1950), based upon a sample set of dendrochronologically dated tree rings, uranium-thorium dated corals, and varve-counted marine sediment. The14C age–cal age information, produced by many laboratories, is converted to Δ14C profiles and calibration curves, for the atmosphere as well as the oceans. We discuss offsets in measuredl4C ages and the errors therein, regional14C age differences, tree–coral14C age comparisons and the time dependence of marine reservoir ages, and evaluate decadalvs. single-year14C results. Changes in oceanic deepwater circulation, especially for the 16,000–11,000 cal BP interval, are reflected in the Δ14C values of INTCAL98.
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            Abyssal recipes II: energetics of tidal and wind mixing

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              North Atlantic thermohaline circulation during the past 20,000 years linked to high-latitude surface temperature

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Nature
                Nature
                Springer Science and Business Media LLC
                0028-0836
                1476-4687
                April 2004
                April 2004
                : 428
                : 6985
                : 834-837
                Article
                10.1038/nature02494
                15103371
                8b58811f-1e67-4610-8c5c-2c81a7c80d25
                © 2004

                http://www.springer.com/tdm

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