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      Photogating in Low Dimensional Photodetectors

      review-article
      1 , 2 , 1 , 2 ,
      Advanced Science
      John Wiley and Sons Inc.
      infrared, low dimensional, photodetectors, photogating, phototransistors

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          Abstract

          Low dimensional materials including quantum dots, nanowires, 2D materials, and so forth have attracted increasing research interests for electronic and optoelectronic devices in recent years. Photogating, which is usually observed in photodetectors based on low dimensional materials and their hybrid structures, is demonstrated to play an important role. Photogating is considered as a way of conductance modulation through photoinduced gate voltage instead of simply and totally attributing it to trap states. This review first focuses on the gain of photogating and reveals the distinction from conventional photoconductive effect. The trap‐ and hybrid‐induced photogating including their origins, formations, and characteristics are subsequently discussed. Then, the recent progress on trap‐ and hybrid‐induced photogating in low dimensional photodetectors is elaborated. Though a high gain bandwidth product as high as 10 9 Hz is reported in several cases, a trade‐off between gain and bandwidth has to be made for this type of photogating. The general photogating is put forward according to another three reported studies very recently. General photogating may enable simultaneous high gain and high bandwidth, paving the way to explore novel high‐performance photodetectors.

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          Most cited references99

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          Emerging photoluminescence in monolayer MoS2.

          Novel physical phenomena can emerge in low-dimensional nanomaterials. Bulk MoS(2), a prototypical metal dichalcogenide, is an indirect bandgap semiconductor with negligible photoluminescence. When the MoS(2) crystal is thinned to monolayer, however, a strong photoluminescence emerges, indicating an indirect to direct bandgap transition in this d-electron system. This observation shows that quantum confinement in layered d-electron materials like MoS(2) provides new opportunities for engineering the electronic structure of matter at the nanoscale.
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            Strong light-matter interactions in heterostructures of atomically thin films.

            The isolation of various two-dimensional (2D) materials, and the possibility to combine them in vertical stacks, has created a new paradigm in materials science: heterostructures based on 2D crystals. Such a concept has already proven fruitful for a number of electronic applications in the area of ultrathin and flexible devices. Here, we expand the range of such structures to photoactive ones by using semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs)/graphene stacks. Van Hove singularities in the electronic density of states of TMDC guarantees enhanced light-matter interactions, leading to enhanced photon absorption and electron-hole creation (which are collected in transparent graphene electrodes). This allows development of extremely efficient flexible photovoltaic devices with photoresponsivity above 0.1 ampere per watt (corresponding to an external quantum efficiency of above 30%).
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              ZnO nanowire UV photodetectors with high internal gain.

              ZnO nanowire (NW) visible-blind UV photodetectors with internal photoconductive gain as high as G approximately 108 have been fabricated and characterized. The photoconduction mechanism in these devices has been elucidated by means of time-resolved measurements spanning a wide temporal domain, from 10-9 to 102 s, revealing the coexistence of fast (tau approximately 20 ns) and slow (tau approximately 10 s) components of the carrier relaxation dynamics. The extremely high photoconductive gain is attributed to the presence of oxygen-related hole-trap states at the NW surface, which prevents charge-carrier recombination and prolongs the photocarrier lifetime, as evidenced by the sensitivity of the photocurrrent to ambient conditions. Surprisingly, this mechanism appears to be effective even at the shortest time scale investigated of t < 1 ns. Despite the slow relaxation time, the extremely high internal gain of ZnO NW photodetectors results in gain-bandwidth products (GB) higher than approximately 10 GHz. The high gain and low power consumption of NW photodetectors promise a new generation of phototransistors for applications such as sensing, imaging, and intrachip optical interconnects.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                wdhu@mail.sitp.ac.cn
                Journal
                Adv Sci (Weinh)
                Adv Sci (Weinh)
                10.1002/(ISSN)2198-3844
                ADVS
                Advanced Science
                John Wiley and Sons Inc. (Hoboken )
                2198-3844
                04 October 2017
                December 2017
                : 4
                : 12 ( doiID: 10.1002/advs.v4.12 )
                : 1700323
                Affiliations
                [ 1 ] State Key Laboratory of Infrared Physics Shanghai Institute of Technical Physics Chinese Academy of Sciences 500 Yutian Road Shanghai 200083 China
                [ 2 ] University of Chinese Academy of Sciences 19 Yuquan Road Beijing 100049 China
                Author notes
                Author information
                http://orcid.org/0000-0001-5278-8969
                Article
                ADVS410
                10.1002/advs.201700323
                5737233
                8b5d5ac5-eaf9-4d44-bc7e-f5c13978b639
                © 2017 The Authors. Published by WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim

                This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                History
                : 29 June 2017
                : 06 August 2017
                Page count
                Figures: 14, Tables: 2, Pages: 17, Words: 13416
                Funding
                Funded by: Major State Basic Research Development Program
                Award ID: 2014CB921600
                Funded by: Natural Science Foundation of China
                Award ID: 61674157
                Award ID: 11734016
                Funded by: Key Research Project of Frontier Sciences of CAS
                Award ID: QYZDBSSW‐JSC031
                Funded by: Royal Society‐Newton Advanced Fellowship
                Categories
                Review
                Reviews
                Custom metadata
                2.0
                advs410
                December 2017
                Converter:WILEY_ML3GV2_TO_NLMPMC version:5.2.8 mode:remove_FC converted:20.12.2017

                infrared,low dimensional,photodetectors,photogating,phototransistors

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