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      Functional principal component analysis and sparse-group LASSO to identify associations between biomarker trajectories and mortality among hospitalized SARS-CoV-2 infected individuals

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          Abstract

          Background

          A substantial body of clinical research involving individuals infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has evaluated the association between in-hospital biomarkers and severe SARS-CoV-2 outcomes, including intubation and death. However, most existing studies considered each of multiple biomarkers independently and focused analysis on baseline or peak values.

          Methods

          We propose a two-stage analytic strategy combining functional principal component analysis (FPCA) and sparse-group LASSO (SGL) to characterize associations between biomarkers and 30-day mortality rates. Unlike prior reports, our proposed approach leverages: 1) time-varying biomarker trajectories, 2) multiple biomarkers simultaneously, and 3) the pathophysiological grouping of these biomarkers. We apply this method to a retrospective cohort of 12, 941 patients hospitalized at Massachusetts General Hospital or Brigham and Women’s Hospital and conduct simulation studies to assess performance.

          Results

          Renal, inflammatory, and cardio-thrombotic biomarkers were associated with 30-day mortality rates among hospitalized SARS-CoV-2 patients. Sex-stratified analysis revealed that hematogolical biomarkers were associated with higher mortality in men while this association was not identified in women. In simulation studies, our proposed method maintained high true positive rates and outperformed alternative approaches using baseline or peak values only with respect to false positive rates.

          Conclusions

          The proposed two-stage approach is a robust strategy for identifying biomarkers that associate with disease severity among SARS-CoV-2-infected individuals. By leveraging information on multiple, grouped biomarkers’ longitudinal trajectories, our method offers an important first step in unraveling disease etiology and defining meaningful risk strata.

          Supplementary Information

          The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1186/s12874-023-02076-3.

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          Most cited references25

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          Clinical Characteristics of 138 Hospitalized Patients With 2019 Novel Coronavirus–Infected Pneumonia in Wuhan, China

          In December 2019, novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)-infected pneumonia (NCIP) occurred in Wuhan, China. The number of cases has increased rapidly but information on the clinical characteristics of affected patients is limited.
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            An interactive web-based dashboard to track COVID-19 in real time

            In December, 2019, a local outbreak of pneumonia of initially unknown cause was detected in Wuhan (Hubei, China), and was quickly determined to be caused by a novel coronavirus, 1 namely severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The outbreak has since spread to every province of mainland China as well as 27 other countries and regions, with more than 70 000 confirmed cases as of Feb 17, 2020. 2 In response to this ongoing public health emergency, we developed an online interactive dashboard, hosted by the Center for Systems Science and Engineering (CSSE) at Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA, to visualise and track reported cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in real time. The dashboard, first shared publicly on Jan 22, illustrates the location and number of confirmed COVID-19 cases, deaths, and recoveries for all affected countries. It was developed to provide researchers, public health authorities, and the general public with a user-friendly tool to track the outbreak as it unfolds. All data collected and displayed are made freely available, initially through Google Sheets and now through a GitHub repository, along with the feature layers of the dashboard, which are now included in the Esri Living Atlas. The dashboard reports cases at the province level in China; at the city level in the USA, Australia, and Canada; and at the country level otherwise. During Jan 22–31, all data collection and processing were done manually, and updates were typically done twice a day, morning and night (US Eastern Time). As the outbreak evolved, the manual reporting process became unsustainable; therefore, on Feb 1, we adopted a semi-automated living data stream strategy. Our primary data source is DXY, an online platform run by members of the Chinese medical community, which aggregates local media and government reports to provide cumulative totals of COVID-19 cases in near real time at the province level in China and at the country level otherwise. Every 15 min, the cumulative case counts are updated from DXY for all provinces in China and for other affected countries and regions. For countries and regions outside mainland China (including Hong Kong, Macau, and Taiwan), we found DXY cumulative case counts to frequently lag behind other sources; we therefore manually update these case numbers throughout the day when new cases are identified. To identify new cases, we monitor various Twitter feeds, online news services, and direct communication sent through the dashboard. Before manually updating the dashboard, we confirm the case numbers with regional and local health departments, including the respective centres for disease control and prevention (CDC) of China, Taiwan, and Europe, the Hong Kong Department of Health, the Macau Government, and WHO, as well as city-level and state-level health authorities. For city-level case reports in the USA, Australia, and Canada, which we began reporting on Feb 1, we rely on the US CDC, the government of Canada, the Australian Government Department of Health, and various state or territory health authorities. All manual updates (for countries and regions outside mainland China) are coordinated by a team at Johns Hopkins University. The case data reported on the dashboard aligns with the daily Chinese CDC 3 and WHO situation reports 2 for within and outside of mainland China, respectively (figure ). Furthermore, the dashboard is particularly effective at capturing the timing of the first reported case of COVID-19 in new countries or regions (appendix). With the exception of Australia, Hong Kong, and Italy, the CSSE at Johns Hopkins University has reported newly infected countries ahead of WHO, with Hong Kong and Italy reported within hours of the corresponding WHO situation report. Figure Comparison of COVID-19 case reporting from different sources Daily cumulative case numbers (starting Jan 22, 2020) reported by the Johns Hopkins University Center for Systems Science and Engineering (CSSE), WHO situation reports, and the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention (Chinese CDC) for within (A) and outside (B) mainland China. Given the popularity and impact of the dashboard to date, we plan to continue hosting and managing the tool throughout the entirety of the COVID-19 outbreak and to build out its capabilities to establish a standing tool to monitor and report on future outbreaks. We believe our efforts are crucial to help inform modelling efforts and control measures during the earliest stages of the outbreak.
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              mice: Multivariate Imputation by Chained Equations inR

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                tingyi_cao@hsph.harvard.edu
                Journal
                BMC Med Res Methodol
                BMC Med Res Methodol
                BMC Medical Research Methodology
                BioMed Central (London )
                1471-2288
                28 October 2023
                28 October 2023
                2023
                : 23
                : 254
                Affiliations
                [1 ]GRID grid.38142.3c, ISNI 000000041936754X, Department of Biostatistics, , Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, ; Boston, MA USA
                [2 ]Biostatistics, Massachusetts General Hospital, ( https://ror.org/002pd6e78) Boston, MA USA
                [3 ]GRID grid.38142.3c, ISNI 000000041936754X, Department of Medicine, , Harvard Medical School, ; Boston, MA USA
                Article
                2076
                10.1186/s12874-023-02076-3
                10613396
                37898791
                8b68b0f1-9f6f-45f3-b27d-99d0a8fafac2
                © The Author(s) 2023

                Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated in a credit line to the data.

                History
                : 22 May 2023
                : 18 October 2023
                Funding
                Funded by: FundRef http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/100000002, National Institutes of Health;
                Award ID: R01HL162373
                Award ID: R01HL162373
                Award ID: R01HL162373
                Categories
                Research
                Custom metadata
                © BioMed Central Ltd., part of Springer Nature 2023

                Medicine
                sars-cov-2,biomarkers,sparse group lasso,functional data analysis,functional principal component analysis

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