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      The ratio of CD8 to Treg tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes is associated with response to cisplatin-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy in patients with muscle invasive urothelial carcinoma of the bladder

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          ABSTRACT

          Introduction: Randomized controlled trials of platinum-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) for bladder cancer have shown that patients who achieve a pathologic response to NAC exhibit 5 y survival rates of approximately 80–90% while NAC resistant (NR) cases exhibit 5 y survival rates of approximately 30–40%. These findings highlight the need to predict who will benefit from conventional NAC and the need for plausible alternatives. Methods: The pre-treatment biopsy tissues from a cohort of 41 patients with muscle invasive bladder who were treated with NAC were incorporated in tissue microarray and immunohistochemistry for PD-L1, CD8, and FOXP3 was performed. Percentage of PD-L1 positive tumor cells was measured. Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) densities, along with CD8 and Treg-specific TILs, were measured. Results: TIL density was strongly correlated with tumor PD-L1 expression, consistent with the mechanism of adaptive immune resistance in bladder cancer. Tumor cell PD-L1 expression was not a significant predictor of response. Neither was the CD8 nor Treg TIL density associated with response. Intriguingly though, the ratio of CD8 to Treg TIL densities was strongly associated with response ( p = 0.0003), supporting the hypothesis that the immune system plays a role in the response of bladder cancer to chemotherapy. Discussion: To our knowledge, this is the first report in bladder cancer showing that the CD8 to Treg TIL density in the pre-treatment tissues is predictive for conventional NAC response. These findings warrant further investigations to both better characterize this association in larger cohorts and begin to elucidate the underlying mechanism(s) of this phenomenon.

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          Most cited references 22

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          The anticancer immune response: indispensable for therapeutic success?

          Although the impact of tumor immunology on the clinical management of most cancers is still negligible, there is increasing evidence that anticancer immune responses may contribute to the control of cancer after conventional chemotherapy. Thus, radiotherapy and some chemotherapeutic agents, in particular anthracyclines, can induce specific immune responses that result either in immunogenic cancer cell death or in immunostimulatory side effects. This anticancer immune response then helps to eliminate residual cancer cells (those that fail to be killed by chemotherapy) or maintains micrometastases in a stage of dormancy. Based on these premises, in this Review we address the question, How may it be possible to ameliorate conventional therapies by stimulating the anticancer immune response? Moreover, we discuss the rationale of clinical trials to evaluate and eventually increase the contribution of antitumor immune responses to the therapeutic management of neoplasia.
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            The prognostic value of FoxP3+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in cancer: a critical review of the literature.

            CD8+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) are associated with survival in a variety of cancers. A second subpopulation of TIL, defined by forkhead box protein P3 (FoxP3) expression, has been reported to inhibit tumor immunity, resulting in decreased patient survival. On the basis of this premise, several groups are attempting to deplete FoxP3+ T cells to enhance tumor immunity. However, recent studies have challenged this paradigm by showing that FoxP3+ T cells exhibit heterogeneous phenotypes and, in some cohorts, are associated with favorable prognosis. These discrepant results could arise from differences in study methodologies or the biologic properties of specific cancer types. Here, we conduct the first systematic review of the prognostic significance of FoxP3+ T cells across nonlymphoid cancers (58 studies from 16 cancers). We assessed antibody specificity, cell-scoring strategy, multivariate modeling, use of single compared with multiple markers, and tumor site. Two factors proved important. First, when FoxP3 was combined with one additional marker, double-positive T cells were generally associated with poor prognosis. Second, tumor site had a major influence. FoxP3+ T cells were associated with poor prognosis in hepatocellular cancer and generally good prognosis in colorectal cancer, whereas other cancer types were inconsistent or understudied. We conclude that FoxP3+ T cells have heterogeneous properties that can be discerned by the use of additional markers. Furthermore, the net biologic effects of FoxP3+ T cells seem to depend on the tumor site, perhaps reflecting microenvironmental differences. Thus, depletion of FoxP3+ T cells might enhance tumor immunity in some patient groups but be detrimental in others.
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              PD-L1 (B7-H1) expression by urothelial carcinoma of the bladder and BCG-induced granulomata: associations with localized stage progression.

              PD-L1 (programmed death ligand 1, B7-H1) is a cell surface glycoprotein that can impair T-cell function. PD-L1 is aberrantly expressed by multiple human malignancies and has been shown to carry a highly unfavorable prognosis in patients with kidney cancer. The role of PD-L1 was evaluated as a mechanism for local stage progression in urothelial carcinoma (UC) of the bladder. Using immunohistochemistry, PD-L1 expression was evaluated in a cohort of 280 high-risk UCs of the bladder. PD-L1 was modeled as a predictor of bladder cancer stage using ordinal logistic regression. Other covariates evaluated as potential confounders included age, gender, tumor grade, and lymphocytic infiltration. Further, PD-L1 was evaluated as a potential mechanism of bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) failure in the subset of high-risk nonmuscle-invasive tumors that received this treatment. PD-L1 expression was observed in 7% of pTa, 16% of pT1, 23% of pT2, 30% of pT3/4, and 45% of carcinoma in situ (CIS) tumors. PD-L1 expression was associated with high-grade tumors (odds ratio [OR] = 2.4, P = .009) and tumor infiltration by mononuclear cells (OR = 5.5, P = .004). We observed that the key determinants of stage progression in this cohort were World Health Organization/International Society of Urologic Pathology (WHO/ISUP) high-grade tumor pathology (OR = 4.77, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.73-8.34; P < .001) and PD-L1 expression (OR = 2.20, P = .012). PD-L1 expression was found to be extremely abundant in the BCG-induced bladder granulomata in 11 of 12 patients failing BCG treatment. Collectively, these data indicate that tumor PD-L1 may facilitate localized stage-advancement of UC and attenuate responses to BCG immunotherapy by neutralizing T cells that normally guard against cancer invasion from the epithelium into the bladder musculature.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Oncoimmunology
                Oncoimmunology
                KONI
                Oncoimmunology
                Taylor & Francis
                2162-4011
                2162-402X
                May 2016
                18 February 2016
                18 February 2016
                : 5
                : 5
                Affiliations
                [a ]Department of Pathology, Johns Hopkins , Baltimore, MD, USA
                [b ]Department of Urology, Johns Hopkins , Baltimore, MD, USA
                [c ]Department of Oncology, Johns Hopkins , Baltimore, MD, USA
                [d ]Department of Dermatology, Johns Hopkins ; Baltimore, MD, USA
                [e ]Department of Urology, Montefiore Medical Center , Bronx, NY, USA
                Author notes
                Alexander S Baras baras@ 123456jhmi.edu

                Supplemental data for this article can be accessed on the publisher's website.

                [*]

                These authors are to be considered co-senior authors.

                Article
                1134412
                10.1080/2162402X.2015.1134412
                4910705
                27467953
                © 2016 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non-Commercial License http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/, which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. The moral rights of the named author(s) have been asserted.

                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 1, References: 43, Pages: 7
                Product
                Categories
                Original Research

                Immunology

                biomarkers; bladder cancer; chemotherapy; immunology; neoadjuvant

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