+1 Recommend
2 collections
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: not found

      Environmental pollution and COVID-19 outbreak: insights from Germany


      Read this article at

          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.


          The impact of environmental pollutants and climate indicators on the outbreak of COVID-19 has gained considerable attention in the recent literature. However, specific investigation of industrial economies like Germany is not available. This provides us motivation to examine the association between environmental pollutants, climate indicators and the COVID-19 cases, recoveries, and deaths in Germany using daily data from February 24, 2020, to July 02, 2020. The correlation analysis and wavelet transform coherence (WTC) approach are the analytical tools, which are used to explore the association between variables included in the study. Our findings indicate that PM2.5, O 3, and NO 2 have a significant relationship with the outbreak of COVID-19. In addition, temperature is the only significant climate indicator which has significant correlation with the spread of COVID-19. Finally, PM10, humidity, and environmental quality index have a significant relationship only with the active cases from COVID-19 pandemic. Our findings conclude that Germany’s successful response to COVID-19 is attributed to environmental legislation and the medical care system, which oversaw significant overhaul after the SARS and MERS outbreaks. The current study implicates that other industrial economies, especially European economies, that are still facing COVID-19 outbreak can follow the German model for pandemic response.

          Related collections

          Most cited references29

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Effects of temperature variation and humidity on the death of COVID-19 in Wuhan, China

          Meteorological parameters are the important factors influencing the infectious diseases such as severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and influenza. This study aims to explore the association between Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) deaths and weather parameters. In this study, we collected the daily death numbers of COVID-19, meteorological parameters and air pollutant data from 20 January 2020 to 29 February 2020 in Wuhan, China. Generalized additive model was applied to explore the effect of temperature, humidity and diurnal temperature range on the daily death counts of COVID-19. There were 2299 COVID-19 death counts in Wuhan during the study period. A positive association with COVID-19 daily death counts was observed for diurnal temperature range (r = 0.44), but negative association for relative humidity (r = −0.32). In addition, one unit increase in diurnal temperature range was only associated with a 2.92% (95% CI: 0.61%, 5.28%) increase in COVID-19 deaths in lag 3. However, both 1 unit increase of temperature and absolute humidity were related to the decreased COVID-19 death in lag 3 and lag 5, with the greatest decrease both in lag 3 [−7.50% (95% CI: −10.99%, −3.88%) and −11.41% (95% CI: −19.68%, −2.29%)]. In summary, this study suggests the temperature variation and humidity may also be important factors affecting the COVID-19 mortality.
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Severe air pollution events not avoided by reduced anthropogenic activities during COVID-19 outbreak

            Due to the pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 in China, almost all avoidable activities in China are prohibited since Wuhan announced lockdown on January 23, 2020. With reduced activities, severe air pollution events still occurred in the North China Plain, causing discussions regarding why severe air pollution was not avoided. The Community Multi-scale Air Quality model was applied during January 01 to February 12, 2020 to study PM2.5 changes under emission reduction scenarios. The estimated emission reduction case (Case 3) better reproduced PM2.5. Compared with the case without emission change (Case 1), Case 3 predicted that PM2.5 concentrations decreased by up to 20% with absolute decreases of 5.35, 6.37, 9.23, 10.25, 10.30, 12.14, 12.75, 14.41, 18.00 and 30.79 μg/m3 in Guangzhou, Shanghai, Beijing, Shijiazhuang, Tianjin, Jinan, Taiyuan, Xi'an, Zhengzhou, Wuhan, respectively. In high-pollution days with PM2.5 greater than 75 μg/m3, the reductions of PM2.5 in Case 3 were 7.78, 9.51, 11.38, 13.42, 13.64, 14.15, 14.42, 16.95 and 22.08 μg/m3 in Shanghai, Jinan, Shijiazhuang, Beijing, Taiyuan, Xi'an, Tianjin, Zhengzhou and Wuhan, respectively. The reductions in emissions of PM2.5 precursors were ~2 times of that in concentrations, indicating that meteorology was unfavorable during simulation episode. A further analysis shows that benefits of emission reductions were overwhelmed by adverse meteorology and severe air pollution events were not avoided. This study highlights that large emissions reduction in transportation and slight reduction in industrial would not help avoid severe air pollution in China, especially when meteorology is unfavorable. More efforts should be made to completely avoid severe air pollution.
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Lockdown for CoViD-2019 in Milan: What are the effects on air quality?

              Based on the rapid spread of the CoViD-2019, a lockdown was declared in the whole Northern Italy by the Government. The application of increasingly rigorous containment measures allowed to reduce the impact of the CoViD-2019 pandemic on the Italian National Health System but at the same time these restriction measures gave also the opportunity to assess the effect of anthropogenic activities on air pollutants in an unprecedented way. This paper aims to study the impact of the partial and total lockdown (PL and TL, respectively) on air quality in the Metropolitan City of Milan. As results, the severe limitation of people movements following the PL and the subsequent TL determined a significant reduction of pollutants concentration mainly due to vehicular traffic (PM10, PM2.5, BC, benzene, CO, and NOx). The lockdown led to an appreciable drop in SO2 only in the city of Milan while it remained unchanged in the adjacent areas. Despite the significant decrease in NO2 in the TL, the O3 exhibited a significant increase, probably, due to the minor NO concentration. In Milan and SaA the increase was more accentuated, probably, due to the higher average concentrations of benzene in Milan than the adjacent areas that might have promoted the formation of O3 in a more significant way.

                Author and article information

                farhan.paks@csu.edu.cn , farhan.paks89@gmail.com
                Air Qual Atmos Health
                Air Qual Atmos Health
                Air Quality, Atmosphere, & Health
                Springer Netherlands (Dordrecht )
                3 August 2020
                : 1-10
                [1 ]GRID grid.464325.2, ISNI 0000 0004 1791 7587, Hubei University of Economics, ; Wuhan, Hubei People’s Republic of China
                [2 ]GRID grid.216417.7, ISNI 0000 0001 0379 7164, School of Business, , Central South University, ; Changsha, Hunan People’s Republic of China
                [3 ]GRID grid.41206.31, ISNI 0000 0001 1009 9807, Anadolu University, ; Eskişehir, Turkey
                [4 ]GRID grid.15043.33, ISNI 0000 0001 2163 1432, Department of Environment and Soil Sciences, , University of Lleida, ; Avinguda Alcalde Rovira Roure 191, 25198 Lleida, Spain
                [5 ]GRID grid.443284.d, Business School, , University of International Business and Economics, ; Beijing, People’s Republic of China
                [6 ]GRID grid.216938.7, ISNI 0000 0000 9878 7032, School of Economics, , Nankai University, ; Tianjin, People’s Republic of China
                [7 ]Education Department, Government of The Punjab, Sialkot, Pakistan
                Author information
                © Springer Nature B.V. 2020

                This article is made available via the PMC Open Access Subset for unrestricted research re-use and secondary analysis in any form or by any means with acknowledgement of the original source. These permissions are granted for the duration of the World Health Organization (WHO) declaration of COVID-19 as a global pandemic.

                : 13 June 2020
                : 27 July 2020

                Atmospheric science & Climatology
                covid-19,germany,environmental pollution
                Atmospheric science & Climatology
                covid-19, germany, environmental pollution


                Comment on this article