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Review of Pharmacological Effects of Antrodia camphorata and Its Bioactive Compounds

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      Abstract

      Antrodia camphorata is a unique mushroom of Taiwan, which has been used as a traditional medicine for protection of diverse health-related conditions. In an effort to translate this Eastern medicine into Western-accepted therapy, a great deal of work has been carried out on A. camphorata. This review discusses the biological activities of the crude extracts and the main bioactive compounds of A. camphorata. The list of bioactivities of crude extracts is huge, ranging from anti-cancer to vasorelaxation and others. Over 78 compounds consisting of terpenoids, benzenoids, lignans, benzoquinone derivatives, succinic and maleic derivatives, in addition to polysaccharides have been identified. Many of these compounds were evaluated for biological activity. Many activities of crude extracts and pure compounds of A. camphorata against some major diseases of our time, and thus, a current review is of great importance. It is concluded that A. camphorata can be considered as an efficient alternative phytotherapeutic agent or a synergizer in the treatment of cancer and other immune-related diseases. However, clinical trails of human on A. camphorata extracts are limited and those of pure compounds are absent. The next step is to produce some medicines from A. camphorata, however, the production may be hampered by problems related to mass production.

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      The Pharmacological Potential of Mushrooms

      This review describes pharmacologically active compounds from mushrooms. Compounds and complex substances with antimicrobial, antiviral, antitumor, antiallergic, immunomodulating, anti-inflammatory, antiatherogenic, hypoglycemic, hepatoprotective and central activities are covered, focusing on the review of recent literature. The production of mushrooms or mushroom compounds is discussed briefly.
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        Botanical polysaccharides: macrophage immunomodulation and therapeutic potential.

        Botanical polysaccharides exhibit a number of beneficial therapeutic properties, and it is thought that the mechanisms involved in these effects are due to the modulation of innate immunity and, more specifically, macrophage function. In this review, we summarize our current state of understanding of the macrophage modulatory effects of botanical polysaccharides isolated from a wide array of different species of flora, including higher plants, mushrooms, lichens and algae. Overall, the primary effect of botanical polysaccharides is to enhance and/or activate macrophage immune responses, leading to immunomodulation, anti-tumor activity, wound-healing and other therapeutic effects. Furthermore, botanical and microbial polysaccharides bind to common surface receptors and induce similar immunomodulatory responses in macrophages, suggesting that evolutionarily conserved polysaccharide structural features are shared between these organisms. Thus, the evaluation of botanical polysaccharides provides a unique opportunity for the discovery of novel therapeutic agents and adjuvants that exhibit beneficial immunomodulatory properties.
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          Ayurveda and Traditional Chinese Medicine: A Comparative Overview

          Ayurveda, the traditional Indian medicine (TIM) and traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) remain the most ancient yet living traditions. There has been increased global interest in traditional medicine. Efforts to monitor and regulate herbal drugs and traditional medicine are underway. China has been successful in promoting its therapies with more research and science-based approach, while Ayurveda still needs more extensive scientific research and evidence base. This review gives an overview of basic principles and commonalities of TIM and TCM and discusses key determinants of success, which these great traditions need to address to compete in global markets.
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            Institute of Biochemical Sciences and Technology, Chaoyang University of Technology, Wufeng, Taiwan
            Author notes
            Journal
            Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
            Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
            ECAM
            Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine : eCAM
            Hindawi Publishing Corporation
            1741-427X
            1741-4288
            2011
            3 January 2011
            3 January 2011
            : 2011
            3095428
            19687189
            10.1093/ecam/nep108
            nep108
            Copyright © 2011 M. Geethangili and Y.-M. Tzeng.

            This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

            Categories
            Review Article

            Complementary & Alternative medicine

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