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      Height and Body Composition Determine Arm Propulsive Force in Youth Swimmers Independent of a Maturation Stage

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          Abstract

          The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between anthropometric variables, body composition and propulsive force in swimmers aged 9–17 years. Anthropometric characteristics (body height and mass, sitting height, arm span, arm muscle area and body composition) and the propulsive force of the arm (tethered swimming test) were evaluated in 56 competitive male swimmers. Tanner’s stages of genital maturation (P1–5) were used. The data analysis included correlations and multiple linear regression. The propulsive force of the arm was correlated with body height (r = 0.34; p =0.013), arm span (r = 0.29; p =0.042), sitting height (r = 0.36; p =0.009), % body fat (r = 0.33; p =0.016), lean body mass (r = 0.34; p =0.015) and arm muscle area (r = 0.31; p =0.026). Using multiple linear regression models, the percent body fat and height were identified as significant predictors of the propulsive force of the arm after controlling for the maturation stage. This model explained 22% (R2 = 0.22) of associations. In conclusion, the propulsive force of swimmers was related to body height and percent body fat.

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          New standards of weight and body composition by frame size and height for assessment of nutritional status of adults and the elderly.

          The study includes measurements of height, weight, triceps skinfold, subscapular skinfold, upper arm circumference, and elbow breadth of a cross-sectional multiracial sample of 21,752 subjects aged 25 to 74 yr derived from the data sets of the first and second National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES I and NHANES II). Based on these data, percentiles of weight, skinfolds, and bone-free upper arm muscle area by height, sex, and frame size were established for all races combined in two groups: adults aged 25 to 54 yr and the elderly aged 55 to 74 yr. These new standards can be used to differentiate those who are at risk of being obese and undernourished. It is recommended that assessment of anthropometric nutritional status and health status of contemporary adult and elderly populations be made with reference to the present standards in conjunction with age correction factors.
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            Applicability of body composition techniques and constants for children and youths.

            This review has focused on the chemical immaturity of children and the implications for body composition estimates. Prepubescent and pubescent children deviate considerably in fat-free body composition from the adult reference male, and this has lead investigators to overestimate body fatness in this population using conventional body composition formulas. The use of multicomponent approaches to body composition to obtain more accurate estimates of body fatness in children has provided new information on the body composition of this population. Sex- and age-specific constants, to replace those derived from the reference male, are suggested for further testing and verification as well as for use in the clinical setting. The chemical immaturity in children has its greatest effect on estimating the extent of obesity in children 6 to 11 years of age and in estimating body fatness in the lean, athletic, prepubescent population. Previous estimates of the growth rate of fat and fat-free body are also affected by chemical immaturity. Further research is needed to study the impact of physical activity and inactivity on the composition of the fat-free body during growth, to develop constants for more accurate estimates of fatness in physically active samples of all ages and to validate the constants presented in the less active populations. Future research with multicomponent body composition systems in all populations of children and youth is essential for progress in this area. Results will have an important contribution to the estimation of childhood obesity, prediction of minimal weight in the athletic population and estimates of growth rate of fat and fat-free body mass. The development of body composition methodologies which more accurately measure the growth of muscle and bone as well as fat is a major challenge ahead.
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              Applicability of body composition techniques and constants for children and youths

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Hum Kinet
                J Hum Kinet
                JHK
                Journal of Human Kinetics
                Akademia Wychowania Fizycznego w Katowicach
                1640-5544
                1899-7562
                29 September 2014
                10 October 2014
                : 42
                : 277-284
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Human Performance Evaluation Laboratory, Faculty of Physical Education, University of Pernambuco (LAPH/ESEF/UPE), Pernambuco, Brazil.
                [2 ] School of Physical Education, University of Pernambuco, Pernambuco, Brazil.
                [3 ] Anthropometrist level 1 (Certification by ISAK).
                [4 ] Department of Physical Education and Sports Science, Federal University of Pernambuco, Academic Center of Vitória de Santo Antão, Pernambuco, Brazil.
                Author notes

                Authors submitted their contribution of the article to the editorial board.

                Corresponding author: Marcos André Moura dos Santos, School of Physical Education, University of Pernambuco, Pernambuco, Brazil. Arnóbio Marques street, 310, Santo Amaro, Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil. CEP: 50100-130. Tel +55 81 3183 33 78. Fax +55 81 3183 33 54. E-mail: mmoura23@ 123456gmail.com
                Article
                jhk-42-277
                10.2478/hukin-2014-0081
                4234767
                8b7b1723-f120-497c-be60-ad75ea5e4364
                © Editorial Committee of Journal of Human Kinetics

                This article is an open-access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/).

                Categories
                Section III – Sports Training

                body composition,performance,swimming,anthropometric variables,propulsive force

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