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      Probable hepatic capillariosis and hydatidosis in an adolescent from the late Roman period buried in Amiens (France) Translated title: Capillariose et hydatidose hépatiques probables chez un adolescent du bas Empire inhumé à Amiens (France)

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          Abstract

          Two calcified objects recovered from a 3rd to 4th-century grave of an adolescent in Amiens (Northern France) were identified as probable hydatid cysts. By using thin-section petrographic techniques, probable Calodium hepaticum (syn. Capillaria hepatica) eggs were identified in the wall of the cysts. Human hepatic capillariosis has not been reported from archaeological material so far, but could be expected given the poor level of environmental hygiene prevalent in this period. Identification of tissue-dwelling parasites such as C. hepaticum in archaeological remains is particularly dependent on preservation conditions and taphonomic changes and should be interpreted with caution due to morphological similarities with Trichuris sp. eggs.

          Translated abstract

          Deux objets calcifiés découverts dans la tombe d’un adolescent du 3 ème-4 ème siècle à Amiens (France) ont été identifiés comme des kystes hydatiques probables. En utilisant des techniques pétrographiques, des œufs de Calodium hepaticum (syn. Capillaria hepatica) ont été identifiés dans la paroi de ces kystes. La capillariose hépatique n’a jamais été rapportée de restes archéologiques mais n’est pas inattendue compte tenu du bas niveau d’hygiène de cette époque. L’identification de parasites tissulaires comme C. hepaticum dans des vestiges archéologiques est particulièrement dépendante des conditions de conservation et de changements taphonomiques et doit être interprétée avec circonspection en raison des similitudes morphologiques de ces œufs avec ceux du trichocéphale ( Trichuris sp.).

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          Most cited references 20

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          Worldwide epidemiology of liver hydatidosis including the Mediterranean area.

          The worldwide incidence and prevalence of cystic echinococcosis have fallen dramatically over the past several decades. Nonetheless, infection with Echinococcus granulosus (E. granulosus) remains a major public health issue in several countries and regions, even in places where it was previously at low levels, as a result of a reduction of control programmes due to economic problems and lack of resources. Geographic distribution differs by country and region depending on the presence in that country of large numbers of nomadic or semi-nomadic sheep and goat flocks that represent the intermediate host of the parasite, and their close contact with the final host, the dog, which mostly provides the transmission of infection to humans. The greatest prevalence of cystic echinococcosis in human and animal hosts is found in countries of the temperate zones, including several parts of Eurasia (the Mediterranean regions, southern and central parts of Russia, central Asia, China), Australia, some parts of America (especially South America) and north and east Africa. Echinococcosis is currently considered an endemic zoonotic disease in the Mediterranean region. The most frequent strain associated with human cystic echinococcosis appears to be the common sheep strain (G1). This strain appears to be widely distributed in all continents. The purpose of this review is to examine the distribution of E. granulosus and the epidemiology of a re-emerging disease such as cystic echinococcosis.
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            Capillaria hepatica in man--an overview of hepatic capillariosis and spurious infections.

            Capillaria hepatica (syn. for Calodium hepaticum) is a zoonotic nematode parasitizing in the livers of rodents as main hosts and in numerous other mammals including humans. It is the causative agent of the rare conditions of hepatic capillariosis and spurious C. hepatica infections in humans. In this review, 163 reported cases of infestations with this parasite (72 reports of hepatic capillariosis, 13 serologically confirmed infestations and 78 observations of spurious infections) are summarized with an overview on the distribution, symptoms, pathology, diagnosis, serology and therapy of this rare human pathogen.
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              Infection by Eucoleus aerophilus in dogs and cats: is another extra-intestinal parasitic nematode of pets emerging in Italy?

              The occurrence of the infection by the lungworm Eucoleus aerophilus (syn. Capillaria aerophila) in dogs and cats from Italy has been evaluated with conventional diagnostic procedures. Individual faecal samples from 569 dogs and 200 cats were undertaken to faecal flotation with sugar and zinc sulphate solution. Sixteen dogs (2.8%) and 11 cats (5.5%) scored positive for eggs of E. aerophilus when samples were processed with either of the two flotation solutions. Overall 14 of 16 dogs and eight of 11 cats infected by E. aerophilus showed respiratory symptoms and the most common were general respiratory distress, dry cough, wheezing and sneezing. These results indicate that E. aerophilus is not uncommon and that canine and feline capillariosis is of clinical importance. Given the impact that E. aerophilus infections may have upon animal health and its zoonotic potential, it is strongly advisable to routinely include this disease in the differential diagnosis of (cardio)-respiratory diseases of dogs and cats.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Parasite
                Parasite
                parasite
                Parasite
                EDP Sciences
                1252-607X
                1776-1042
                2014
                28 February 2014
                : 21
                : ( publisher-idID: parasite/2014/01 )
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Department of Medical Parasitology and Mycology, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences PO Box 6446 Tehran 14155 Iran
                [2 ] PACEA, UMR 5199, Anthropologie des Populations Passées et Présentes, Université de Bordeaux Bâtiment B8, Allée Geoffroy St Hilaire, CS 50023 33615 Pessac Cedex France
                [3 ] Service de Parasitologie-Mycologie, Hôpital Cochin Assistance Publique Hôpitaux de Paris, Université Paris Descartes 27 Faubourg St Jacques 75014 Paris France
                [4 ] Research Center for Hydatid Disease in Iran, Kerman University of Medical Sciences Kerman 76169-14111 Iran
                [5 ] Department of Parasitology, Pasteur Institute of Iran 69 Pasteur Avenue Tehran 13169-43551 Iran
                [6 ] Center for Research of Endemic Parasites of Iran (CREPI), Tehran University of Medical Sciences PO Box 6446 Tehran 14155 Iran
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author: jean.dupouy-camet@ 123456cch.aphp.fr
                Article
                parasite130094 10.1051/parasite/2014010
                10.1051/parasite/2014010
                3936287
                24572211
                © G. Mowlavi et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2014

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 1, Equations: 0, References: 39, Pages: 5
                Categories
                Research Article

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