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      Graves disease and metastatic hormonal-active Hürthle cell thyroid cancer : A case report

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          Abstract

          Rationale:

          A hormone-active metastatic Hürthle cell thyroid carcinoma (HCTC) and Graves disease (GD) present a therapeutic challenge and is rarely reported.

          Patient concerns:

          We present a 64-year-old male patient, who had dyspnea and left hip pain lasting 4 months. He had clinical signs of hyperthyroidism and a tumor measuring 9 cm in diameter of the left thyroid lobe, metastatic neck lymph node and metastases in the lungs, mediastinum, and bones.

          Diagnosis:

          Laboratory findings confirmed hyperthyroidism and GD. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy and cytological investigation revealed metastases of HCTC in the skull and in the 8th right rib. A CT examination showed a thyroid tumor, metastatic neck lymph node, metastases in the lungs, mediastinum and in the 8th right rib measuring 20 × 5.6 × 4.5 cm, in the left acetabulum measuring 9 × 9 × 3 cm and parietooccipitally in the skull measuring 5 × 4 × 2 cm. Histology after total thyroidectomy and resection of the 8th right rib confirmed metastatic HCTC.

          Interventions:

          The region of the left hip had been irradiated with concomitant doxorubicin 20 mg once weekly. When hyperthyroidism was controlled with thiamazole, a total thyroidectomy was performed. Persistent T3 hyperthyroidism, most likely caused by TSH-R-stimulated T3 production in large metastasis in the 8th right rib, was eliminated by rib resection. Thereafter, the patient was treated with 3 radioactive iodine-131 (RAI) therapies (cumulative dose of 515 mCi). Unfortunately, the tumor rapidly progressed after treatment with RAI and progressed 10 months after therapy with sorafenib.

          Outcomes:

          Despite treatment, the disease rapidly progressed and patient died due to distant metastases. He survived for 28 months from diagnosis.

          Lessons:

          Simultaneous hormone-active HCTC and GD is extremely rare and prognosis is dismal. Concomitant external beam radiotherapy and doxorubicin chemotherapy, followed by RAI therapy, prevented the growth of a large metastasis in the left hip in our patient. However, a large metastasis in the 8th right rib presented an unresolved problem. Treatment with rib resection and RAI did not prevent tumor recurrence. External beam radiotherapy and sorafenib treatment failed to prevent tumor growth.

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          Most cited references 26

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          2015 American Thyroid Association Management Guidelines for Adult Patients with Thyroid Nodules and Differentiated Thyroid Cancer: The American Thyroid Association Guidelines Task Force on Thyroid Nodules and Differentiated Thyroid Cancer.

          Thyroid nodules are a common clinical problem, and differentiated thyroid cancer is becoming increasingly prevalent. Since the American Thyroid Association's (ATA's) guidelines for the management of these disorders were revised in 2009, significant scientific advances have occurred in the field. The aim of these guidelines is to inform clinicians, patients, researchers, and health policy makers on published evidence relating to the diagnosis and management of thyroid nodules and differentiated thyroid cancer.
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            Sorafenib in radioactive iodine-refractory, locally advanced or metastatic differentiated thyroid cancer: a randomised, double-blind, phase 3 trial.

            Patients with radioactive iodine ((131)I)-refractory locally advanced or metastatic differentiated thyroid cancer have a poor prognosis because of the absence of effective treatment options. In this study, we assessed the efficacy and safety of orally administered sorafenib in the treatment of patients with this type of cancer. In this multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial (DECISION), we investigated sorafenib (400 mg orally twice daily) in patients with radioactive iodine-refractory locally advanced or metastatic differentiated thyroid cancer that had progressed within the past 14 months. Adult patients (≥18 years of age) with this type of cancer were enrolled from 77 centres in 18 countries. To be eligible for inclusion, participants had to have at least one measurable lesion by CT or MRI according to Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors (RECIST); Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status 0-2; adequate bone marrow, liver, and renal function; and serum thyroid-stimulating hormone concentration lower than 0·5 mIU/L. An interactive voice response system was used to randomly allocate participants in a 1:1 ratio to either sorafenib or matching placebo. Patients, investigators, and the study sponsor were masked to treatment assignment. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival, assessed every 8 weeks by central independent review. Analysis was by intention to treat. Patients in the placebo group could cross over to open-label sorafenib upon disease progression. Archival tumour tissue was examined for BRAF and RAS mutations, and serum thyroglobulin was measured at baseline and at each visit. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00984282, and with the EU Clinical Trials Register, number EudraCT 2009-012007-25. Patients were randomly allocated on a 1:1 basis to sorafenib or placebo. The intention-to-treat population comprised 417 patients (207 in the sorafenib group and 210 in the placebo group) and the safety population was 416 patients (207 in the sorafenib group and 209 in the placebo group). Median progression-free survival was significantly longer in the sorafenib group (10·8 months) than in the placebo group (5·8 months; hazard ratio [HR] 0·59, 95% CI 0·45-0·76; p<0·0001). Progression-free survival improved in all prespecified clinical and genetic biomarker subgroups, irrespective of mutation status. Adverse events occurred in 204 of 207 (98·6%) patients receiving sorafenib during the double-blind period and in 183 of 209 (87·6%) patients receiving placebo. Most adverse events were grade 1 or 2. The most frequent treatment-emergent adverse events in the sorafenib group were hand-foot skin reaction (76·3%), diarrhoea (68·6%), alopecia (67·1%), and rash or desquamation (50·2%). Sorafenib significantly improved progression-free survival compared with placebo in patients with progressive radioactive iodine-refractory differentiated thyroid cancer. Adverse events were consistent with the known safety profile of sorafenib. These results suggest that sorafenib is a new treatment option for patients with progressive radioactive iodine-refractory differentiated thyroid cancer. Bayer HealthCare Pharmaceuticals and Onyx Pharmaceuticals (an Amgen subsidiary). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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              • Record: found
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              Graves' Disease.

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Medicine (Baltimore)
                Medicine (Baltimore)
                MEDI
                Medicine
                Lippincott Williams & Wilkins (Hagerstown, MD )
                0025-7974
                1536-5964
                25 June 2021
                25 June 2021
                : 100
                : 25
                Affiliations
                [a ]Department of Surgical Oncology, Institute of Oncology Ljubljana
                [b ]Faculty of Medicine Ljubljana
                [c ]Department of Nuclear Medicine, Institute of Oncology Ljubljana
                [d ]Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Clinical Center Ljubljana
                [e ]Department of Medical Oncology, Institute of Oncology Ljubljana, Zaloška 2, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
                Author notes
                []Correspondence: Nikola Besic, Department of Surgical Oncology, Institute of Oncology, Zaloška 2, Ljubljana, Slovenia (e-mail: nbesic@ 123456onko-i.si ).
                Article
                MD-D-21-02800 26384
                10.1097/MD.0000000000026384
                8238273
                34160415
                Copyright © 2021 the Author(s). Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 (CCBY), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0

                Product
                Funding
                Funded by: Ministry of Education, Science and Sport of the Republic of Slovenia
                Award ID: P3-0289
                Award Recipient : Nikola Besic
                Funded by: Ministry of Education, Science and Sport of the Republic of Slovenia
                Award ID: J3-1760
                Award Recipient : Katja Zaletel
                Categories
                4300
                Research Article
                Clinical Case Report
                Custom metadata
                TRUE

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