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      Genetic structure and diversity of indigenous rice ( Oryza sativa) varieties in the Eastern Himalayan region of Northeast India

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          Abstract

          The Eastern Himalayan region of Northeast (NE) India is home to a large number of indigenous rice varieties, which may serve as a valuable genetic resource for future crop improvement to meet the ever-increasing demand for food production. However, these varieties are rapidly being lost due to changes in land-use and agricultural practices, which favor agronomically improved varieties. A detailed understanding of the genetic structure and diversity of indigenous rice varieties is crucial for efficient utilization of rice genetic resources and for developing suitable conservation strategies. To explore the genetic structure and diversity of rice varieties in NE India, we genotyped 300 individuals of 24 indigenous rice varieties representing sali, boro, jum and glutinous types, 5 agronomically improved varieties, and one wild rice species ( O. rufipogon) using seven SSR markers. A total of 85 alleles and a very high level of gene diversity (0.776) were detected among the indigenous rice varieties of the region. Considerable level of genetic variation was found within indigenous varieties whereas improved varieties were monoporphic across all loci. The comparison of genetic diversity among different types of rice revealed that sali type possessed the highest gene diversity (0.747) followed by jum (0.627), glutinous (0.602) and boro (0.596) types of indigenous rice varieties, while the lowest diversity was detected in agronomically improved varieties (0.459). The AMOVA results showed that 66% of the variation was distributed among varieties indicating a very high level of genetic differentiation in rice varieties in the region. Two major genetically defined clusters corresponding to indica and japonica groups were detected in rice varieties of the region. Overall, traditionally cultivated indigenous rice varieties in NE India showed high levels of genetic diversity comparable to levels of genetic diversity reported from wild rice populations in various parts of the world. The efforts for conservation of rice germplasm in NE India should consider saving rice varieties representing different types with specific emphasis given to sali and jum types. The protection against the loss of vast genetic diversity found in indigenous rice varieties in NE India is crucial for maintaining future food security in the changing world.

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          The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/2193-1801-2-228) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

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          MEGA2: molecular evolutionary genetics analysis software.

          We have developed a new software package, Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis version 2 (MEGA2), for exploring and analyzing aligned DNA or protein sequences from an evolutionary perspective. MEGA2 vastly extends the capabilities of MEGA version 1 by: (1) facilitating analyses of large datasets; (2) enabling creation and analyses of groups of sequences; (3) enabling specification of domains and genes; (4) expanding the repertoire of statistical methods for molecular evolutionary studies; and (5) adding new modules for visual representation of input data and output results on the Microsoft Windows platform. http://www.megasoftware.net. s.kumar@asu.edu
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            Phylogenetic Analysis: Models and Estimation Procedures

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              Origin, dispersal, cultivation and variation of rice.

              There are two cultivated and twenty-one wild species of genus Oryza. O. sativa, the Asian cultivated rice is grown all over the world. The African cultivated rice, O. glaberrima is grown on a small scale in West Africa. The genus Oryza probably originated about 130 million years ago in Gondwanaland and different species got distributed into different continents with the breakup of Gondwanaland. The cultivated species originated from a common ancestor with AA genome. Perennial and annual ancestors of O. sativa are O. rufipogon and O. nivara and those of O. glaberrima are O. longistaminata, O. breviligulata and O. glaberrima probably domesticated in Niger river delta. Varieties of O. sativa are classified into six groups on the basis of genetic affinity. Widely known indica rices correspond to group I and japonicas to group VI. The so called javanica rices also belong to group VI and are designated as tropical japonicas in contrast to temperate japonicas grown in temperate climate. Indica and japonica rices had a polyphyletic origin. Indicas were probably domesticated in the foothills of Himalayas in Eastern India and japonicas somewhere in South China. The indica rices dispersed throughout the tropics and subtropics from India. The japonica rices moved northward from South China and became the temperate ecotype. They also moved southward to Southeast Asia and from there to West Africa and Brazil and became tropical ecotype. Rice is now grown between 55 degrees N and 36 degrees S latitudes. It is grown under diverse growing conditions such as irrigated, rainfed lowland, rainfed upland and floodprone ecosystems. Human selection and adaptation to diverse environments has resulted in numerous cultivars. It is estimated that about 120,000 varieties of rice exist in the world. After the establishment of International Rice Research Institute in 1960, rice varietal improvement was intensified and high yielding varieties were developed. These varieties are now planted to 70% of world's riceland. Rice production doubled between 1966 and 1990 due to large scale adoption of these improved varieties. Rice production must increase by 60% by 2025 to feed the additional rice consumers. New tools of molecular and cellular biology such as anther culture, molecular marker aided selection and genetic engineering will play increasing role in rice improvement.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                baharulchoudhury@gmail.com
                khanml61@gmail.com
                daya.dayanandan@concordia.ca
                Journal
                Springerplus
                Springerplus
                SpringerPlus
                Springer International Publishing AG (Cham )
                2193-1801
                19 May 2013
                19 May 2013
                2013
                : 2
                : 228
                Affiliations
                [ ]Forest and Evolutionary Genomics Laboratory, and Centre for Structural and Functional Genomics, Biology Department, Concordia University, 7141 Sherbrooke St. West, Montreal, Quebec H4B 1R6 Canada
                [ ]Québec Centre for Biodiversity Sciences, Montréal, QC Canada
                [ ]Department of Forestry, North Eastern Regional Institute of Science & Technology, NIRJULI, Itanagar, Arunachal Pradesh 791109 India
                Article
                293
                10.1186/2193-1801-2-228
                3667383
                23741655
                8b8f6454-4ec3-411b-902d-8ff4f041e466
                © Choudhury et al.; licensee Springer. 2013

                This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                History
                : 27 February 2013
                : 25 April 2013
                Categories
                Research
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                © The Author(s) 2013

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                conservation,eastern himalaya,genetic diversity,genetic structure,indigenous rice varieties,ne india

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