Objective To assess the effects of Socioeconomic status on the dietary quality of children and adolescents, and to provide the reference for improving primary students’ dietary quality.
Methods A total of 2 496 students from 16 schools (4 urban primary schools, 4 rural primary schools, 4 urban middle schools, and 4 rural middle schools) in Fangshan District, Beijing, were included using a stratified cluster random sampling method. Information on 7-day intake of cereals, vegetables, fruits, meat and dairy was collected using questionnaires and dietary quality was graded according to the Dietary Guidelines for Chinese Residents (2016).
Results The dietary quality for urban children and adolescents was better than that for rural ones. Compared with rural children, their urban peers had higher scores for intake of vegetables, fruits, and dairy (all were P<0.01), but lower scores for intake of meat ( P= 0.01). For children with parental education level of senior high school, the dietary scores were higher in urban areas ( P<0.05), whereas no urban-rural disparity was found for children with higher educated parents (junior college or above, P = 0.17). In children with monthly household income less than 5 000 yuan, the urban dietary scores were higher than that of rural areas ( P<0.01), whereas in the group above 5 000 yuan, the difference between urban and rural areas was no longer statistically significant ( P>0.05). The multi-factor analysis showed that living in urban areas, being girls, being younger, with higher educated parents and with higher monthly household income were protective factors for dietary quality. However, the effect of household income on dietary quality differed between urban and rural areas ( P<0.05).
Conclusion In the process of dietary guidance and intervention, children with relatively low socio-economic level should be given a priority to provide appropriate nutrition education and welfare policies.
【摘要】目的研究社会经济状况对儿童青少年膳食质量的影响，为提髙中小学生的膳食质量提供参考。 方法采 用分层整群抽样方法，按城市中学、城市小学、乡村中学、乡村小学各抽取4所学校，对抽中学校的2 496名学生进行调査。 采用自行设计的问卷连续记录谷类、蔬菜、水果、肉类、乳类5类食物的7d摄人情况，并根据《中国居民膳食指南（2016)》 对儿童青少年的膳食质量进行评价。 结果城市儿童青少年膳食质量髙于乡村，其中城市蔬菜、水果、乳类的摄人量髙于 乡村，但是乡村肉类评分髙于城市 ( P值均<0.01);父母最髙文化程度髙中和初中及以下组城市膳食得分髙于乡村 ( P值均 <0.05)，大专及以上的髙学历组城乡间差异没有统计学意义（ P = 0.17);家庭月收人<5 000元人群城市膳食得分髙于乡村 ( P值均<0.01)，為5 000元人群城乡间差异无统计学意义 ( P值均>0.05)。多因素分析表明，城市、女生、低龄、父母文化程 度髙和家庭月收人髙与膳食质量呈正性相关，城乡与家庭月收人有交互作用，家庭月收人在乡村对膳食质量的影响更显著 ( P值均<0.05)。 结论父母最髙文化程度和家庭月收人与儿童青少年的膳食质量呈正相关，并且家庭月收人在乡村中对 膳食质量的影响更显著。因此，在膳食指导和干预中，应髙度重视乡村文化程度和家庭月收人低的人群，并提供适当的营 养教育方案和福利政策。