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      Circulating syndecan-1 as a novel biomarker relates to lung function, systemic inflammation, and exacerbation in COPD

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          Abstract

          Introduction

          Patients with COPD often show increased systemic inflammation which is associated with lower functional status, greater exacerbation risk, and worse clinical outcomes. Syndecans (SDCs), a family of transmembrane heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs), have been found to involve in inflammatory processes in many chronic inflammatory diseases. The aim of this preliminary clinical study was to investigate the possible association between two SDCs, SDC-1 and SDC-4, with lung function, systemic inflammation, and risk of exacerbations in COPD patients.

          Method

          Serum SDC-1 and SDC-4 levels were measured in 101 COPD patients and 57 health controls. Correlations between SDCs and other parameters were analyzed using Spearsman’s rho. Receiver operating curve (ROC) analysis was used to evaluate the threshold value in differentiating disease status.

          Results

          Although both serum SDC-1 and SDC-4 showed a downward trend in COPD patients, only SDC-1 levels were correlated positively with the ratio of FEV1/FVC and parameters of small airway obstruction. Besides, SDC-1 but not SDC-4, was negatively correlated with C-reactive protein (CRP) in COPD patients and downregulated in frequent exacerbators (FEs) of COPD. Using a cutoff value of 2.08 ng/mL, the sensitivity and specificity of SDC-1 to differentiate FE were 44% and 93.4%, respectively.

          Conclusion

          In conclusion, circulating SDC-1 may be a novel inflammatory biomarker associated with lung function and systemic inflammation in patients with COPD, which could also be useful to identify the risk of COPD exacerbation. Further studies should be performed to clarify the influences of SDC-1 on the pathogenesis and outcomes of COPD.

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          Most cited references 19

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          From COPD to chronic systemic inflammatory syndrome?

           L. Fabbri,  K. F. Rabe (2007)
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            Exploitation of syndecan-1 shedding by Pseudomonas aeruginosa enhances virulence.

            Cell-surface heparan sulphate proteoglycans (HSPGs) are ubiquitous and abundant receptors/co-receptors of extracellular ligands, including many microbes. Their role in microbial infections is poorly defined, however, because no cell-surface HSPG has been clearly connected to the pathogenesis of a particular microbe. We have previously shown that Pseudomonas aeruginosa, through its virulence factor LasA, enhances the in vitro shedding of syndecan-1-the predominant cell-surface HSPG of epithelia. Here we show that shedding of syndecan-1 is also activated by P. aeruginosa in vivo, and that the resulting syndecan-1 ectodomains enhance bacterial virulence in newborn mice. Newborn mice deficient in syndecan-1 resist P. aeruginosa lung infection but become susceptible when given purified syndecan-1 ectodomains or heparin, but not when given ectodomain core protein, indicating that the ectodomain's heparan sulphate chains are the effectors. In wild-type newborn mice, inhibition of syndecan-1 shedding or inactivation of the shed ectodomain's heparan sulphate chains prevents lung infection. Our findings uncover a pathogenetic mechanism in which a host response to tissue injury-syndecan-1 shedding-is exploited to enhance microbial virulence apparently by modulating host defences.
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              A Systematic Review of Diagnostic Biomarkers of COPD Exacerbation

              The aims of this systematic review were to determine which blood-based molecules have been evaluated as possible biomarkers to diagnose chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations (AECOPD) and to ascertain the quality of these biomarker publications. Patients of interest were those that have been diagnosed with COPD. MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CINAHL databases were searched systematically through February 2015 for publications relating to AECOPD diagnostic biomarkers. We used a modified guideline for the REporting of tumor MARKer Studies (mREMARK) to assess study quality. Additional components of quality included the reporting of findings in a replication cohort and the use of receiver-operating characteristics area-under-the curve statistics in evaluating performance. 59 studies were included, in which the most studied biomarkers were C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α). CRP showed consistent elevations in AECOPD compared to control subjects, while IL-6 and TNF-α had variable statistical significance and results. mREMARK scores ranged from 6 to 18 (median score of 13). 12 articles reported ROC analyses and only one study employed a replication cohort to confirm biomarker performance. Studies of AECOPD diagnostic biomarkers remain inconsistent in their reporting, with few studies employing ROC analyses and even fewer demonstrating replication in independent cohorts.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                COPD
                copd
                International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
                Dove
                1176-9106
                1178-2005
                28 August 2019
                2019
                : 14
                : 1933-1941
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, West China Hospital of Sichuan University and Division of Pulmonary Diseases, State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy of China , Chengdu 610041, People’s Republic of China
                [2 ]Department of Internal Medicine, Sichuan Provincial People’s Hospital and Sichuan Academy of Medical Science , Chengdu 610072, People’s Republic of China
                [3 ]Department of Laboratorial Medicine, West China Hospital of Sichuan University , Chengdu 610041, People’s Republic of China
                [4 ]Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, The 3rd People’s Hospital of Chengdu , Chengdu 610031, People’s Republic of China
                [5 ]Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 416 Hospital , Chengdu 610051, People’s Republic of China
                [6 ]Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Affiliated Hospital of Chengdu University , Chengdu 610081, People’s Republic of China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Lei Chen; Fuqiang WenDepartment of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, West China Hospital of Sichuan University and Division of Pulmonary Diseases, State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy of China , Chengdu610041, People’s Republic of ChinaTel +86 288 542 2350Fax +86 288 558 2944Email lchens@126.com; wenfuqiang.scu@gmail.com
                [*]

                These authors contributed equally to this work

                Article
                207855
                10.2147/COPD.S207855
                6718058
                © 2019 Li et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 3, References: 25, Pages: 9
                Categories
                Original Research

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