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      Polyol synthesis of nanoparticles: status and options regarding metals, oxides, chalcogenides, and non-metal elements

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          Abstract

          The polyol synthesis of nanoparticles is reviewed, including metals, oxides, main-group elements and recent strategies to expand the method's limits.

          Abstract

          Since the first description by Fievet, Lagier and Figlarz in 1989, the synthesis of nanoparticles in high-boiling, multivalent alcohols – so-called polyols – has been developed into a widely applied strategy, and nowadays belongs to the standard repertoire for preparing high-quality nanomaterials. The polyols take advantage of several features such as: (i) water-comparable solubility of simple metal-salt precursors; (ii) high boiling points (up to 320 °C); (iii) reducing properties for the instantaneous synthesis of metals; (iv) coordinating properties for surface functionalization and colloidal stabilisation of nanoparticles; (v) wide adaptability of the polyols ranging from low-weight ethylene glycol (EG) to high-weight polyethylene glycols (PEGs). This review summarises the status and perspectives on nanoscaled elemental metals, metal oxides, metal chalcogenides, and non-metal elements that were prepared via the polyol synthesis. Moreover, we summarize our results and concepts to expand the limits of the polyol synthesis. This includes strategies for less-noble metal synthesis, phase transfer reactions, photochemical reduction, NMR-based characterisation of polyol-functionalised nanoparticles, realisation of phase-pure and readily crystalline metal tungstates, stabilisation of low-melting elements, and controlled thermal decomposition of polyols to obtain high-quality, lanthanide-modified carbon dots (C-dots).

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          Thermoelectric materials, which can generate electricity from waste heat or be used as solid-state Peltier coolers, could play an important role in a global sustainable energy solution. Such a development is contingent on identifying materials with higher thermoelectric efficiency than available at present, which is a challenge owing to the conflicting combination of material traits that are required. Nevertheless, because of modern synthesis and characterization techniques, particularly for nanoscale materials, a new era of complex thermoelectric materials is approaching. We review recent advances in the field, highlighting the strategies used to improve the thermopower and reduce the thermal conductivity.
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            Chemistry and properties of nanocrystals of different shapes.

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              A study of the nucleation and growth processes in the synthesis of colloidal gold

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                GRCHFJ
                Green Chemistry
                Green Chem.
                Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC)
                1463-9262
                1463-9270
                2015
                2015
                : 17
                : 8
                : 4107-4132
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Institut für Anorganische Chemie
                [2 ]Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT)
                [3 ]76131 Karlsruhe
                [4 ]Germany
                Article
                10.1039/C5GC00943J
                © 2015
                Product
                Self URI (article page): http://xlink.rsc.org/?DOI=C5GC00943J

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