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      Calidad nutricional y consumo por cabras de forrajede botón de oro (tithonia diversifolia) Translated title: Nutritional quality and intake of golden botton forage (Tithonia diversifolia) in goats.


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          Resumen Introducción. Las cabras se han adaptado a condiciones ambientales variables y tienen la capacidad de sobrevivir en zonas de escasa vegetación, sin embargo, su desempeño productivo se verá afectado significativamente por una mala alimentación. Objetivo. Evaluar la calidad nutricional de forraje botón de oro(Tithonia diversifolia) a partir de la selección y consumo por cabras. Materiales y métodos. El experimento se llevó a cabo en la Estación Experimental de Ganado Lechero''Alfredo Volio Mata'' de la Universidad de Costa Rica desde setiembre hasta noviembre del 2019. El botón de oro se extrajo de un cultivo con un año de establecido y se cosechó a una edad de rebrote de 50 días y fue suministrado a 16 cabras no lactantes ni preñadas de las razas Saanen, LaMancha y Toggenburg no lactantes y no gestantes, con un peso vivo promedio de 48±5 kg. El forraje fresco se ofreció en forma entera tal como fue cosechado. Los animales se ubicaron en 2 corrales de 12 m2cada uno y recibieron el forraje en una relación de 20% de su peso vivo como forraje verde, en 6 porciones iguales distribuidas a lo largo del día. El periodo experimental fue de 73 días que incluyó un periodo de 28 días para adaptación a la nueva dieta y a las compañeras del grupo. Resultados. En promedio las cabras consumieron 6580±2430 g de forraje fresco por día (13,6±5,0% de su peso vivo), lo que corresponde a 700±210 g por día (1,44±0,4% de su peso vivo) en base seca. No se encontraron diferencias significativas (p>0,05) entre la concentración de nutrientes en el forraje ofrecido y el rechazado. La concentración de proteína cruda en el forraje no superó el 17,2% y el consumo diario por animal de este nutriente fue en promedio de 130±70 g. La concentración de fibra detergente neutro en el forraje fue inferior a 38%. Conclusión. El forraje de botón de oro cosechado a 50 días de rebrote presentó un adecuado contenido nutricional y se presenta como una alternativa más para la alimentación de cabras.

          Translated abstract

          Abstract Introduction. Goats have adapted to variable environmental conditions and have the ability to survive in sparsely vegetated areas; however, their productive performance will be significantly affected by poor diet. Objective. To evaluate the nutritional quality of golden botton forage (Tithonia diversifolia) from the selection and consumption by goats. Materials and methods. The experiment was carried out in the''Alfredo Volio Mata'' Experimental Station of the University of Costa Rica from September to November 2019. Golden botton forage was extracted from a crop with a year of established and was harvested at a regrowth age of 50 days and was fed to 16 non-lactating and non-pregnant Saanen, LaMancha and Toggenburg goats, with an average live weight of 48±5 kg. Fresh forage was offered in its entirety as harvested. Animals were placed in 2 pens of 12 m2each and received the forage in a ratio of 20% of their live body weight as green forage, in 6 equal portions distributed throughout the day. The experimental period was 73 days, which included a 28-day period for adaptation to the new diet and to the groupmates. Results. On average, goats consumed 6580±2430 g of fresh forage per day (13.6±5.0% of their live weight) which corresponded to 700±210 g per day (1.44±0.4% of its live weight) of dry matter. No significant differences (p>0.05) were found between the concentration of nutrients in the offered and rejected forage. Crude protein concentration in forage did not exceed 17.2% and daily consumption per animal of this nutrient was on average 130±70 g. Neutral detergent fiber concentration in forage was less than 38%. Conclusion. Golden button forage harvested at 50 days of regrowth presented an adequate nutritional content and is considered as one more alternative for feeding goats.

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          Most cited references24

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          Methods for dietary fiber, neutral detergent fiber, and nonstarch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition.

          There is a need to standardize the NDF procedure. Procedures have varied because of the use of different amylases in attempts to remove starch interference. The original Bacillus subtilis enzyme Type IIIA (XIA) no longer is available and has been replaced by a less effective enzyme. For fiber work, a new enzyme has received AOAC approval and is rapidly displacing other amylases in analytical work. This enzyme is available from Sigma (Number A3306; Sigma Chemical Co., St. Louis, MO). The original publications for NDF and ADF (43, 53) and the Agricultural Handbook 379 (14) are obsolete and of historical interest only. Up to date procedures should be followed. Triethylene glycol has replaced 2-ethoxyethanol because of reported toxicity. Considerable development in regard to fiber methods has occurred over the past 5 yr because of a redefinition of dietary fiber for man and monogastric animals that includes lignin and all polysaccharides resistant to mammalian digestive enzymes. In addition to NDF, new improved methods for total dietary fiber and nonstarch polysaccharides including pectin and beta-glucans now are available. The latter are also of interest in rumen fermentation. Unlike starch, their fermentations are like that of cellulose but faster and yield no lactic acid. Physical and biological properties of carbohydrate fractions are more important than their intrinsic composition.
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            Characteristics of plant cell walls affecting intake and digestibility of forages by ruminants.

            Even under the intensive concentrate feeding systems of ruminant animal production in the United States, forages continue to represent the single most important feed resource. Cell-wall concentration and digestibility limit the intake potential and energy availability of forage crops in beef and dairy production. Identification of cell-wall characteristics that should be targets of genetic modification is required if plant breeders and molecular biologists are to successfully improve forages for livestock feeding. As the forage plant cell develops, phenolic acids and lignin are deposited in the maturing cell wall in specific structural conformations, and in a strict developmental sequence. Lignin is the key element that limits cell-wall digestibility, but cross-linkage of lignin and wall polysaccharides by ferulic acid bridges may be a prerequisite for lignin to exert its affect. Lignin composition and p-coumaric acid in the wall are less likely to affect digestibility. Voluntary intake of forages is a critical determinant of animal performance and cell-wall concentration is negatively related to intake of ruminants consuming high-forage diets. Cell walls affect intake by contributing to ruminal fill. A simple model of cell-wall digestion and passage in which ruminal fill is a function of rates of digestion and passage, as well as the indigestible fraction of the cell-wall indicates that cell-wall concentration and rate of passage are the most critical parameters determining ruminal fill. Plant factors that affect rate of passage include those that affect particle size reduction by chewing and those that affect particle buoyancy in the rumen. The latter is primarily affected by 1) the ability of the particulate matter to retain gases, which is probably related to plant anatomy and rate of digestion of the plant tissue, and 2) the rate at which the gas is produced, which is affected by the potentially digestible fraction of the particulate matter and the rate of digestion of this fraction. Increasing rate of digestion should increase rate of passage by diminishing the gas produced and increasing density over time. A reduction in the indigestible cell-wall fraction is beneficial because this will decrease fill and increase digestibility. Animal production and economic benefits from reduced cell-wall concentration and increased digestibility are significant. Because of the high cell-wall concentration and large digestible cell-wall fraction of grasses, reduction in cell-wall concentration would probably be of greater value than improving digestibility in these species. Legumes represent the opposite situation and may benefit more from improvements in the digestibility of their cell walls.
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              Physical constraints on voluntary intake of forages by ruminants.

              M Allen (1996)
              Voluntary dry matter intake (VDMI) of forages by ruminants may be limited by distention resulting from restricted flow of digesta through the gastrointestinal tract. An animal's capacity for fill depends on the weight and volume of digesta that causes distention and the flow rate of digesta from the organ in which distention occurs. The reticulorumen is generally regarded as the site in the gastrointestinal tract for which distention limits VDMI with high-fill diets, although evidence suggests that distention of the abomasum may also limit VDMI. Linear decreases in VDMI have been noted with increasing amounts of inert fill inserted into the reticulorumen, but results have not been consistent across several experiments. Reduction in VDMI depends on the extent to which intake is limited by fill before insertion of inert fill; hence animals with high energy requirements consuming relatively low-energy, high-fill diets are affected to the greatest extent. Because NDF generally ferments and passes from the reticulorumen more slowly than other dietary constituents, it has a greater filling effect over time than non-fibrous feed components and has been found to be the best single chemical predictor of VDMI. However, many other factors affect fill, including particle size, chewing frequency and effectiveness, particle fragility, indigestible NDF fraction, rate of fermentation of the potentially digestible NDF, and characteristics of reticular contractions. These factors are only partially accounted for in models that have been developed to predict VDMI. Increased accuracy of prediction of VDMI is expected as models continue to evolve.

                Author and article information

                Agronomía Costarricense
                Agron. Costarricense
                Universidad de Costa Rica. Colegio de Ingenieros y Agrónomos. Ministerio de Agricultura y Ganadería (San Pedro de Montes de Oca, San José, Costa Rica )
                December 2021
                : 45
                : 2
                : 135-142
                [1] orgnameUniversidad de Costa Rica orgdiv1Facultad de Ciencias Agroalimentarias orgdiv2Estación Experimental Alfredo Volio Mata Costa Rica jorge.elizondosalazar@ 123456ucr.ac.cr
                S0377-94242021000200135 S0377-9424(21)04500200135

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 3.0 International License.

                : 27 May 2020
                : 05 August 2020
                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 24, Pages: 8

                SciELO Costa Rica

                Nota técnica

                nutrición animal,menores,Capra hircus,forages,dry matter,animal nutrition,ruminants,forrajes,materia seca


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