Blog
About

13
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
0 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      Highlight report: Launch of a large integrated European in vitro toxicology project: EU-ToxRisk

      Read this article at

      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          The integrated European project, EU-ToxRisk, proudly sees itself as “flagship” exploring new alternative-to-animal approaches to chemical safety evaluation. It promotes mechanism-based toxicity testing and risk assessment according to the principles laid down for toxicology for the twenty-first century. The project was officially launched in January 2016 with a kickoff meeting in Egmond aan Zee, the Netherlands. Over 100 scientists representing academia and industry as well as regulatory authorities attended the inaugural meeting. The project will integrate advances in in vitro and in silico toxicology, read-across methods, and adverse outcome pathways. EU-ToxRisk will continue to make use of the case study strategy deployed in SEURAT-1, a FP7 initiative ended in December 2015. Even though the development of new non-animal methods is one target of EU-ToxRisk, the project puts special emphasis on their acceptance and implementation in regulatory contexts. This €30 million Horizon 2020 project involves 38 European partners and one from the USA. EU-ToxRisk aims at the “development of a new way of risk assessment.”

          Related collections

          Most cited references 32

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Human embryonic stem cell-derived test systems for developmental neurotoxicity: a transcriptomics approach

          Developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) and many forms of reproductive toxicity (RT) often manifest themselves in functional deficits that are not necessarily based on cell death, but rather on minor changes relating to cell differentiation or communication. The fields of DNT/RT would greatly benefit from in vitro tests that allow the identification of toxicant-induced changes of the cellular proteostasis, or of its underlying transcriptome network. Therefore, the ‘human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-derived novel alternative test systems (ESNATS)’ European commission research project established RT tests based on defined differentiation protocols of hESC and their progeny. Valproic acid (VPA) and methylmercury (MeHg) were used as positive control compounds to address the following fundamental questions: (1) Does transcriptome analysis allow discrimination of the two compounds? (2) How does analysis of enriched transcription factor binding sites (TFBS) and of individual probe sets (PS) distinguish between test systems? (3) Can batch effects be controlled? (4) How many DNA microarrays are needed? (5) Is the highest non-cytotoxic concentration optimal and relevant for the study of transcriptome changes? VPA triggered vast transcriptional changes, whereas MeHg altered fewer transcripts. To attenuate batch effects, analysis has been focused on the 500 PS with highest variability. The test systems differed significantly in their responses (<20 % overlap). Moreover, within one test system, little overlap between the PS changed by the two compounds has been observed. However, using TFBS enrichment, a relatively large ‘common response’ to VPA and MeHg could be distinguished from ‘compound-specific’ responses. In conclusion, the ESNATS assay battery allows classification of human DNT/RT toxicants on the basis of their transcriptome profiles. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00204-012-0967-3) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found
            Is Open Access

            Applying Adverse Outcome Pathways (AOPs) to support Integrated Approaches to Testing and Assessment (IATA).

            Chemical regulation is challenged by the large number of chemicals requiring assessment for potential human health and environmental impacts. Current approaches are too resource intensive in terms of time, money and animal use to evaluate all chemicals under development or already on the market. The need for timely and robust decision making demands that regulatory toxicity testing becomes more cost-effective and efficient. One way to realize this goal is by being more strategic in directing testing resources; focusing on chemicals of highest concern, limiting testing to the most probable hazards, or targeting the most vulnerable species. Hypothesis driven Integrated Approaches to Testing and Assessment (IATA) have been proposed as practical solutions to such strategic testing. In parallel, the development of the Adverse Outcome Pathway (AOP) framework, which provides information on the causal links between a molecular initiating event (MIE), intermediate key events (KEs) and an adverse outcome (AO) of regulatory concern, offers the biological context to facilitate development of IATA for regulatory decision making. This manuscript summarizes discussions at the Workshop entitled "Advancing AOPs for Integrated Toxicology and Regulatory Applications" with particular focus on the role AOPs play in informing the development of IATA for different regulatory purposes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Toxicogenomics directory of chemically exposed human hepatocytes.

              A long-term goal of numerous research projects is to identify biomarkers for in vitro systems predicting toxicity in vivo. Often, transcriptomics data are used to identify candidates for further evaluation. However, a systematic directory summarizing key features of chemically influenced genes in human hepatocytes is not yet available. To bridge this gap, we used the Open TG-GATES database with Affymetrix files of cultivated human hepatocytes incubated with chemicals, further sets of gene array data with hepatocytes from human donors generated in this study, and publicly available genome-wide datasets of human liver tissue from patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), cirrhosis, and hepatocellular cancer (HCC). After a curation procedure, expression data of 143 chemicals were included into a comprehensive biostatistical analysis. The results are summarized in the publicly available toxicotranscriptomics directory ( http://wiki.toxbank.net/toxicogenomics-map/ ) which provides information for all genes whether they are up- or downregulated by chemicals and, if yes, by which compounds. The directory also informs about the following key features of chemically influenced genes: (1) Stereotypical stress response. When chemicals induce strong expression alterations, this usually includes a complex but highly reproducible pattern named 'stereotypical response.' On the other hand, more specific expression responses exist that are induced only by individual compounds or small numbers of compounds. The directory differentiates if the gene is part of the stereotypical stress response or if it represents a more specific reaction. (2) Liver disease-associated genes. Approximately 20 % of the genes influenced by chemicals are up- or downregulated, also in liver disease. Liver disease genes deregulated in cirrhosis, HCC, and NASH that overlap with genes of the aforementioned stereotypical chemical stress response include CYP3A7, normally expressed in fetal liver; the phase II metabolizing enzyme SULT1C2; ALDH8A1, known to generate the ligand of RXR, one of the master regulators of gene expression in the liver; and several genes involved in normal liver functions: CPS1, PCK1, SLC2A2, CYP8B1, CYP4A11, ABCA8, and ADH4. (3) Unstable baseline genes. The process of isolating and the cultivation of hepatocytes was sufficient to induce some stress leading to alterations in the expression of genes, the so-called unstable baseline genes. (4) Biological function. Although more than 2,000 genes are transcriptionally influenced by chemicals, they can be assigned to a relatively small group of biological functions, including energy and lipid metabolism, inflammation and immune response, protein modification, endogenous and xenobiotic metabolism, cytoskeletal organization, stress response, and DNA repair. In conclusion, the introduced toxicotranscriptomics directory offers a basis for a rationale choice of candidate genes for biomarker evaluation studies and represents an easy to use source of background information on chemically influenced genes.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Marcel.Leist@uni-konstanz.de
                Journal
                Arch Toxicol
                Arch. Toxicol
                Archives of Toxicology
                Springer Berlin Heidelberg (Berlin/Heidelberg )
                0340-5761
                1432-0738
                26 March 2016
                26 March 2016
                2016
                : 90
                : 1021-1024
                Affiliations
                [ ]Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing - Europe, University of Konstanz, Konstanz, Germany
                [ ]BASF SE, Ludwigshafen am Rhein, Germany
                [ ]Leibniz Research Centre for Working Environment and Human Factors, TU Dortmund, Dortmund, Germany
                [ ]Department of In Vitro Toxicology and Biomedicine, University of Konstanz, Konstanz, Germany
                [ ]Division of Toxicology, Leiden Academic Center for Drug Research, Leiden University, Leiden, The Netherlands
                Article
                1698
                10.1007/s00204-016-1698-7
                4830874
                27017488
                © The Author(s) 2016

                Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

                Categories
                Editorial
                Custom metadata
                © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

                Toxicology

                Comments

                Comment on this article