Foxtail millet is considered a ‘smart food’ because of nutrient richness and resilience to environments. A diversity panel of 92 foxtail millet landraces preserved by Taiwan indigenous peoples containing amylose content (AC) in the range of 0.7% to 16.9% exhibited diverse physiochemical properties revealed by a rapid viscosity analyzer (RVA). AC was significantly correlated with 5 RVA parameters, and some RVA parameters were also highly correlated with one another. In comparison to rice, foxtail millet contained less starch (65.9–73.1%) and no significant difference in totals of resistant starch (RS), slowly digestible starch (SDS), hydrolysis index (HI), and expected glycemic index (eGI) according to in vitro digestibility assays of raw flour with similar AC. RS was significantly positively correlated with AC and four RVA parameters, cold paste viscosity (CPV), setback viscosity (SBV), peak time (PeT), and pasting temperature (PaT), implying that suitable food processing to alter physicochemical properties of foxtail millet might mitigate hyperglycemia. This investigation of pasting properties and digestibility of diverse foxtail millet germplasm revealed much variation and showed potential for multi-dimensional utilizations in daily staple food and food industries.