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      Genetic Variation of Physicochemical Properties and Digestibility of Foxtail Millet ( Setaria italica) Landraces of Taiwan

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          Abstract

          Foxtail millet is considered a ‘smart food’ because of nutrient richness and resilience to environments. A diversity panel of 92 foxtail millet landraces preserved by Taiwan indigenous peoples containing amylose content (AC) in the range of 0.7% to 16.9% exhibited diverse physiochemical properties revealed by a rapid viscosity analyzer (RVA). AC was significantly correlated with 5 RVA parameters, and some RVA parameters were also highly correlated with one another. In comparison to rice, foxtail millet contained less starch (65.9–73.1%) and no significant difference in totals of resistant starch (RS), slowly digestible starch (SDS), hydrolysis index (HI), and expected glycemic index (eGI) according to in vitro digestibility assays of raw flour with similar AC. RS was significantly positively correlated with AC and four RVA parameters, cold paste viscosity (CPV), setback viscosity (SBV), peak time (PeT), and pasting temperature (PaT), implying that suitable food processing to alter physicochemical properties of foxtail millet might mitigate hyperglycemia. This investigation of pasting properties and digestibility of diverse foxtail millet germplasm revealed much variation and showed potential for multi-dimensional utilizations in daily staple food and food industries.

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          Most cited references 43

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          Low-glycemic index diets in the management of diabetes: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

          The use of diets with low glycemic index (GI) in the management of diabetes is controversial, with contrasting recommendations around the world. We performed a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials to determine whether low-GI diets, compared with conventional or high-GI diets, improved overall glycemic control in individuals with diabetes, as assessed by reduced HbA(1c) or fructosamine levels. Literature searches identified 14 studies, comprising 356 subjects, that met strict inclusion criteria. All were randomized crossover or parallel experimental design of 12 days' to 12 months' duration (mean 10 weeks) with modification of at least two meals per day. Only 10 studies documented differences in postprandial glycemia on the two types of diet. Low-GI diets reduced HbA(1c) by 0.43% points (CI 0.72-0.13) over and above that produced by high-GI diets. Taking both HbA(1c) and fructosamine data together and adjusting for baseline differences, glycated proteins were reduced 7.4% (8.8-6.0) more on the low-GI diet than on the high-GI diet. This result was stable and changed little if the data were unadjusted for baseline levels or excluded studies of short duration. Systematically taking out each study from the meta-analysis did not change the CIs. Choosing low-GI foods in place of conventional or high-GI foods has a small but clinically useful effect on medium-term glycemic control in patients with diabetes. The incremental benefit is similar to that offered by pharmacological agents that also target postprandial hyperglycemia.
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            A starch hydrolysis procedure to estimate glycemic index

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              Millet Grains: Nutritional Quality, Processing, and Potential Health Benefits

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: Academic Editor
                Journal
                Molecules
                Molecules
                molecules
                Molecules
                MDPI
                1420-3049
                26 November 2019
                December 2019
                : 24
                : 23
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Agronomy, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan; walter@ 123456almatec.com.tw (S.-Y.Y.); kuoshumeng@ 123456gmail.com (S.-M.K.)
                [2 ]Crop Science Division, Taiwan Agricultural Research Institute, Taichung 41362, Taiwan; yuru0503@ 123456tari.gov.tw
                [3 ]Department of Agronomy, National Chiayi University, Chiayi 60004, Taiwan; yctsai@ 123456mail.ncyu.edu.tw
                [4 ]Department of Agronomy, Chiayi Agricultural Experiment Station, Taiwan Agricultural Research Institute, Chiayi 60044, Taiwan; wuypei@ 123456dns.caes.gov.tw
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: ylin@ 123456ntu.edu.tw ; Tel.: +886-2-3366-4763
                [†]

                These two authors contributed equally.

                Article
                molecules-24-04323
                10.3390/molecules24234323
                6930489
                31779254
                © 2019 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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