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      An echinoderm Lagerstätte from the Upper Ordovician (Katian), Ontario: taxonomic re-evaluation and description of new dicyclic camerate crinoids

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          Abstract

          The Upper Ordovician (lower Katian) Bobcaygeon and Verulam formations from the Lake Simcoe region of Ontario contain a highly diverse echinoderm assemblage that is herein recognized as a Konservat-Lagerstätte. Although fossil crinoids have long been recognized from these formations, the fauna has not received a comprehensive taxonomic evaluation since Springer’s classic 1911 monograph. Recent extensive collection and preparation of new material from the Bobcaygeon and Verulam formations near Brechin, Ontario recovered numerous exceptionally preserved crinoid specimens with arms, stems, and attachment structures intact. The Brechin Lagerstätte is the most taxonomically diverse Katian crinoid fauna, with more than 20 crinoid genera represented in this collection.

          Here, all dicyclic crinoids belonging to subclass Camerata from the Brechin Lagerstätte are evaluated. The following four genera and seven species are described from the fauna, including one new genus and four new species: Reteocrinus stellaris, Reteocrinus alveolatus, Archaeocrinus sundayaen. sp., Archaeocrinus maraensisn. sp., Priscillacrinus elegansn. gen. n. sp., Cleiocrinus regius, and Cleiocrinus lepidotusn. sp. The exceptional preservation of this collection provides an opportunity to describe more fully the morphologic and ontogenetic details of known Ordovician crinoid taxa, to conduct a taxonomic re-evaluation of many species, to describe new taxa, and to provide a framework for subsequent studies of crinoid community paleoecology.

          UUID: http://zoobank.org/e3e268a7-88e5-43cd-84ea-b40df45e8281

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          Most cited references 23

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          A sampling-adjusted macroevolutionary history for Ordovician-Early Silurian crinoids

          Temporal variation in sampling intensity and geologically controlled rates of fossil preservation distort macroevolutionary patterns in the fossil record. Here, we use a comprehensive, list-based compilation of taxonomically and stratigraphically vetted global crinoid genus occurrences to evaluate and correct for the effects of variable and incomplete sampling from the Ordovician through Early Silurian. After standardizing the number of occurrences or the number of biofacies used to estimate the stratigraphic ranges of genera and after adjusting rates of turnover to account for the incomplete preservation of true extinction and origination pulses, we find support for several important revisions to the macroevolutionary history of crinoids. First, in contrast to the uncorrected data, sample-standardized genus richness does not appear to increase by more than 20% after an abrupt Middle Ordovician (Harnagian) diversification. Second, the only significant short-term change in genus richness following the Harnagian increase is a ≥24% decline from the Rawtheyan to the Hirnantian. Third, volatility in rates of genus extinction is increased after adjusting for preservation and there remain significant peaks of extinction in the Rawtheyan, which marks the end-Ordovician extinction, and in the middle of the Early Silurian. Finally, significant increases in origination rates occur in the Early Silurian. These results reaffirm the importance of the end-Ordovician extinction for crinoids, but they also highlight the comparatively poorly sampled Early Silurian as a time of turnover among crinoids. Crinoid genus extinction rates are positively correlated with area-weighted rates of sedimentary package truncation, suggesting that extinction may have been controlled by physical environmental changes, such as the contraction of unique epicontinental sea habitats. The lack of a correlation between genus origination and sedimentary package initiation reinforces this hypothesis and suggests that other factors, such as evolutionary innovations and biotic interactions during the Ordovician radiation, may have been more important in controlling the diversification of crinoids.
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            Preservation and paleoecology of a Middle Ordovician hardground community

            Limestone beds in the Middle Ordovician (Trentonian) Bobcaygeon Formation, exposed near Kirkfield, Ontario, exhibit irregular, bored and encrusted surfaces indicative of early lithification. These hardgrounds were formed in extensively burrowed carbonate sediments and their hummocky surface topographies were inherited, in part, from a pre-existing pattern of burrow tunnels. A diverse community, including bryozoans, brachiopods, crinoids, edrioasteroids, and paracrinoids, colonized these hard substrates. In addition, most surfaces are riddled with small, cylindrical boreholes ( Trypanites ) which represent dwellings of soft-bodied organisms. Some hardground surfaces were inhabited by multiple generations of organisms. Remains of the older generations of encrusters were strongly abraded and nearly obliterated. Superimposed upon these worn remnants are well-preserved remains of rather fragile organisms, e.g. complete hybocystitid crinoids and edrioasteroids. Evidently, certain hardground surfaces were rapidly buried by muds, resulting in the in situ preservation of the last generation of attached organisms. Slightly differing subcommunities of organisms inhabited various microhabitats provided by the irregular hardground surfaces. Thus, the relative abundance of bryozoans and echinoderms encrusting the roofs of small crevices differs from that on the exposed upper surfaces of the hardgrounds. This is the geologically oldest known hardground community in which microhabitat subdivision can be recognized. However, polarity between the subcommunities is not as pronounced as in geologically younger hard substrate faunas.
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              Evolution and Classification of Paleozoic Crinoids

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Journal of Paleontology
                J. Paleontol.
                Cambridge University Press (CUP)
                0022-3360
                1937-2337
                May 2018
                February 21 2018
                May 2018
                : 92
                : 3
                : 488-505
                Article
                10.1017/jpa.2017.151
                © 2018

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