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      Control of Hypertension with Captopril Affords Better Renal Protection as Compared with Irbesartan in Salt-Loaded Uremic Rats


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          Background/Aim: Hypertension induced by exaggerated sodium consumption accelerates the progression of renal failure. We investigated the effects of a high-sodium (HS) diet on the progression of renal failure in rats maintained normotensive by angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition or AT-1 blockade. Methods: In 70 Sprague-Dawley rats, renal failure was induced by five-sixths nephrectomy. They were fed isocaloric normal-sodium (NS), low-sodium (LS), or HS diets. HS rats prone to develop hypertension were divided into three subgroups: treated to normotension by irbesartan (HS-1) or captopril (HS-2) or left untreated (HS-0). Results: All HS animals developed significant proteinuria which strongly correlated with the 24-hour sodium excretion. HS-0 rats demonstrated severe hypertension, rapid deterioration of the renal function, and 100% mortality after 3 weeks. In irbesartan-treated HS-1 rats, mortality and decline of the glomerular filtration rate were similar to those of normal- or low-sodium-fed animals (100% mortality after week 12). In captopril-treated HS-2 rats, glomerular filtration rate decline and mortality were significantly blunted as compared with all other groups (50% mortality after week 12). Conclusions: (1) In five-sixths-nephrectomized uremic rats maintained normotensive by either irbesartan or captopril, the rate of deterioration of the renal function was not aggravated by exaggerated sodium consumption. (2) In this experimental setting, captopril treatment yielded a better survival outcome as compared with irbesartan, despite the similar hypotensive effect.

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          Most cited references14

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          Harmful effects of dietary salt in addition to hypertension.

          In addition to raising the blood pressure dietary salt is responsible for several other harmful effects. The most important are a number which, though independent of the arterial pressure, also harm the cardiovascular system. A high salt intake increases the mass of the left ventricle, thickens and stiffens conduit arteries and thickens and narrows resistance arteries, including the coronary and renal arteries. It also increases the number of strokes, the severity of cardiac failure and the tendency for platelets to aggregate. In renal disease, a high salt intake accelerates the rate of renal functional deterioration. Apart from its effect on the cardiovascular system dietary salt has an effect on calcium and bone metabolism, which underlies the finding that in post-menopausal women salt intake controls bone density of the upper femur and pelvis. Dietary salt controls the incidence of carcinoma of the stomach and there is some evidence which suggests that salt is associated with the severity of asthma in male asthmatic subjects.
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            Pressure-independent contribution of sodium to large artery structure and function in hypertension.

            Sodium sensitivity is usually studied in terms of change of blood pressure (BP) but the specific effects on conduit arteries have not been addressed. In genetic models of hypertension, chronically increased sodium diet is associated with aortic hypertrophy and development of extracellular matrix independent of BP. These alterations, often associated with increased stiffness and secretory properties of vascular smooth muscle, are reversed by lowering sodium intake and/or giving diuretics, independently of BP changes. The arterial changes are chronically modulated by hormonal counterregulatory mechanisms since, when sodium intake is high, bradykinin blockade produces more carotid hypertrophy, and when sodium intake is normal, less aortic collagen accumulates because of AT(1)-receptor blockade. In longitudinal studies on hypertensive subjects, increased sodium intake not only increases BP but also decreases brachial artery diameter, implying pressure-independent mechanisms acting on the arterial wall. The antihypertensive effect of diuretics is associated with little change of arterial geometry and stiffness, probably resulting from marked angiotensin-induced increase of arterial stiffness. This latter effect is blocked by converting-enzyme inhibition. All these arterial changes may be genetically modulated since in salt-sensitive hypertensives, increased sodium intake is associated with decreased arterial distensibility, and in some hypertensive subjects, a polymorphism of the AT(1)-receptor gene has been described in association with increased aortic stiffness and is reversed by converting-enzyme inhibition independent of BP. In genetic models of human and rat hypertension, increased sodium intake is associated with specific alterations of the structure and function of conduit arteries involving extracellular matrix, but independent of BP and atherosclerosis.
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              Increased gene expression of components of the renin-angiotensin system in glomeruli of genetically hypertensive rats.

              The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is implicated in the development of hypertensive glomerulosclerosis. However, no experimental evidence exists that clearly demonstrates activation of glomerular RAS in hypertensive nephropathy. We used stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP) to examine whether RAS components are increased in glomeruli of SHRSP and whether this increase leads to an increase in mRNA levels for transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1). We examined the sequential changes of urinary albumin excretion (UAE), morphology, and glomerular mRNA expression for TGF-beta1 and fibronectin (FN) in relation to glomerular mRNA expression for angiotensinogen (ATN), angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), angiotensin II type 1a (AT1a), and type 1b (AT1b) receptors, and intervention with angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonist candesartan and equihypotensive hydralazine. In SHRSP, UAE was normal at 9 weeks of age, but became higher, beginning at 12 weeks of age, than that in the age-matched Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats, while SHRSP showed no glomerulosclerosis until 14 weeks of age; it was marked at 24 weeks. Plasma renin activity and plasma angiotensin II level was equivalent in the 9- and 12-week-old SHRSP and the WKY rats; both parameters, however, were elevated in 24-week-old SHRSP as compared with age-matched control. RNase protection assays showed that glomerular levels of ATN, ACE, and AT1a and AT1b receptors mRNA were significantly increased in 9-, 12-, and 14-week-old, but not in 24-week-old SHRSP, compared with age-matched WKY rats. Northern blot analysis showed that glomerular levels of TGF-beta1 and FN mRNA were higher in SHRSP than in WKY rats at all time points. Candesartan reduced UAE to control levels, whereas hydralazine reduced UAE but not to control levels. Candesartan administration for 12 weeks virtually prevented the progression of glomerulosclerosis. While candesartan reduced mRNA levels for RAS components, TGF-beta1, and FN to control levels, hydralazine was not effective in this respect. Conclusion Results suggest that increases in glomerular RAS components that occur independently of circulating RAS alter glomerular permselectivity and increase the glomerular expression of TGF-beta1 and FN in young SHRSP. Findings in old SHRSP suggest that altered glomerular permselectivity and an increased glomerular expression of TGF-beta1 and FN may be associated with the activation of systemic RAS.

                Author and article information

                Nephron Physiol
                Nephron Physiology
                S. Karger AG
                September 2005
                19 August 2005
                : 101
                : 1
                : p14-p20
                aNephrology Division and bDepartment of Internal Medicine C, Assaf Harofeh Medical Center,
                86037 Nephron Physiol 2005;101:p14–p20
                © 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                : 18 August 2004
                : 25 February 2005
                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 3, References: 36, Pages: 1
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/86037
                Self URI (text/html): https://www.karger.com/Article/FullText/86037
                Self URI (journal page): https://www.karger.com/SubjectArea/Nephrology
                Original Paper

                Cardiovascular Medicine,Nephrology
                Angiotensin II,Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors,Hypertension,Sodium diets,AT-1 receptor antagonism,Renal failure, hypertension control


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