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      Electrosynthesis of high-entropy metallic glass nanoparticles for designer, multi-functional electrocatalysis

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          Abstract

          Creative approaches to the design of catalytic nanomaterials are necessary in achieving environmentally sustainable energy sources. Integrating dissimilar metals into a single nanoparticle (NP) offers a unique avenue for customizing catalytic activity and maximizing surface area. Alloys containing five or more equimolar components with a disordered, amorphous microstructure, referred to as High-Entropy Metallic Glasses (HEMGs), provide tunable catalytic performance based on the individual properties of incorporated metals. Here, we present a generalized strategy to electrosynthesize HEMG-NPs with up to eight equimolar components by confining multiple metal salt precursors to water nanodroplets emulsified in dichloroethane. Upon collision with an electrode, alloy NPs are electrodeposited into a disordered microstructure, where dissimilar metal atoms are proximally arranged. We also demonstrate precise control over metal stoichiometry by tuning the concentration of metal salt dissolved in the nanodroplet. The application of HEMG-NPs to energy conversion is highlighted with electrocatalytic water splitting on CoFeLaNiPt HEMG-NPs.

          Abstract

          High-entropy metallic glasses are an unexplored class of nanomaterials and are difficult to prepare. Here, the authors present an electrosynthetic method to design these materials with up to eight tunable metallic components and show multifunctional electrocatalytic water splitting capabilities.

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          Most cited references48

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          A critical review of high entropy alloys and related concepts

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            A fracture-resistant high-entropy alloy for cryogenic applications.

            High-entropy alloys are equiatomic, multi-element systems that can crystallize as a single phase, despite containing multiple elements with different crystal structures. A rationale for this is that the configurational entropy contribution to the total free energy in alloys with five or more major elements may stabilize the solid-solution state relative to multiphase microstructures. We examined a five-element high-entropy alloy, CrMnFeCoNi, which forms a single-phase face-centered cubic solid solution, and found it to have exceptional damage tolerance with tensile strengths above 1 GPa and fracture toughness values exceeding 200 MPa·m(1/2). Furthermore, its mechanical properties actually improve at cryogenic temperatures; we attribute this to a transition from planar-slip dislocation activity at room temperature to deformation by mechanical nanotwinning with decreasing temperature, which results in continuous steady strain hardening. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.
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              High-Entropy Alloys: A Critical Review

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                jedick@email.unc.edu
                Journal
                Nat Commun
                Nat Commun
                Nature Communications
                Nature Publishing Group UK (London )
                2041-1723
                14 June 2019
                14 June 2019
                2019
                : 10
                : 2650
                Affiliations
                [1 ]ISNI 0000000122483208, GRID grid.10698.36, Department of Chemistry, , The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, ; Chapel Hill, NC 27599-3290 USA
                [2 ]ISNI 0000000121581279, GRID grid.10877.39, Laboratoire de Physique de la Matière Condensée, , Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS, IP Paris, ; 91128 Palaiseau, France
                [3 ]ISNI 0000000122483208, GRID grid.10698.36, Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, School of Medicine, , The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, ; Chapel Hill, NC 27599-3290 USA
                Author information
                http://orcid.org/0000-0001-5743-7738
                http://orcid.org/0000-0003-3311-1260
                http://orcid.org/0000-0002-1562-5084
                http://orcid.org/0000-0003-1569-4482
                http://orcid.org/0000-0002-8697-3828
                http://orcid.org/0000-0003-4525-8702
                http://orcid.org/0000-0002-4538-9705
                Article
                10303
                10.1038/s41467-019-10303-z
                6570760
                31201304
                8bbf1af4-b4fe-4a05-ae4a-d9dbff9d9cf5
                © The Author(s) 2019

                Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

                History
                : 4 January 2019
                : 30 April 2019
                Categories
                Article
                Custom metadata
                © The Author(s) 2019

                Uncategorized
                electrocatalysis,renewable energy,metals and alloys
                Uncategorized
                electrocatalysis, renewable energy, metals and alloys

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