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      A Modified Algorithm for the Improvement of Composite Interval Mapping

      , ,

      Genetics

      Genetics Society of America

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          Abstract

          Composite interval mapping (CIM) is the most commonly used method for mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL) with populations derived from biparental crosses. However, the algorithm implemented in the popular QTL Cartographer software may not completely ensure all its advantageous properties. In addition, different background marker selection methods may give very different mapping results, and the nature of the preferred method is not clear. A modified algorithm called inclusive composite interval mapping (ICIM) is proposed in this article. In ICIM, marker selection is conducted only once through stepwise regression by considering all marker information simultaneously, and the phenotypic values are then adjusted by all markers retained in the regression equation except the two markers flanking the current mapping interval. The adjusted phenotypic values are finally used in interval mapping (IM). The modified algorithm has a simpler form than that used in CIM, but a faster convergence speed. ICIM retains all advantages of CIM over IM and avoids the possible increase of sampling variance and the complicated background marker selection process in CIM. Extensive simulations using two genomes and various genetic models indicated that ICIM has increased detection power, a reduced false detection rate, and less biased estimates of QTL effects.

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          Most cited references 16

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          A simple regression method for mapping quantitative trait loci in line crosses using flanking markers.

           C S Haley,  S Knott (1992)
          The use of flanking marker methods has proved to be a powerful tool for the mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTL) in the segregating generations derived from crosses between inbred lines. Methods to analyse these data, based on maximum-likelihood, have been developed and provide good estimates of QTL effects in some situations. Maximum-likelihood methods are, however, relatively complex and can be computationally slow. In this paper we develop methods for mapping QTL based on multiple regression which can be applied using any general statistical package. We use the example of mapping in an F(2) population and show that these regression methods produce very similar results to those obtained using maximum likelihood. The relative simplicity of the regression methods means that models with more than a single QTL can be explored and we give examples of two lined loci and of two interacting loci. Other models, for example with more than two QTL, with environmental fixed effects, with between family variance or for threshold traits, could be fitted in a similar way. The ease, speed of application and generality of regression methods for flanking marker analysis, and the good estimates they obtain, suggest that they should provide the method of choice for the analysis of QTL mapping data from inbred line crosses.
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            Theoretical basis for separation of multiple linked gene effects in mapping quantitative trait loci.

             Z Zeng (1993)
            It is now possible to use complete genetic linkage maps to locate major quantitative trait loci (QTLs) on chromosome regions. The current methods of QTL mapping (e.g., interval mapping, which uses a pair or two pairs of flanking markers at a time for mapping) can be subject to the effects of other linked QTLs on a chromosome because the genetic background is not controlled. As a result, mapping of QTLs can be biased, and the resolution of mapping is not very high. Ideally when we test a marker interval for a QTL, we would like our test statistic to be independent of the effects of possible QTLs at other regions of the chromosome so that the effects of QTLs can be separated. This test statistic can be constructed by using a pair of markers to locate the testing position and at the same time using other markers to control the genetic background through a multiple regression analysis. Theory is developed in this paper to explore the idea of a conditional test via multiple regression analysis. Various properties of multiple regression analysis in relation to QTL mapping are examined. Theoretical analysis indicates that it is advantageous to construct such a testing procedure for mapping QTLs and that such a test can potentially increase the precision of QTL mapping substantially.
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              Dissecting the architecture of a quantitative trait locus in yeast.

              Most phenotypic diversity in natural populations is characterized by differences in degree rather than in kind. Identification of the actual genes underlying these quantitative traits has proved difficult. As a result, little is known about their genetic architecture. The failures are thought to be due to the different contributions of many underlying genes to the phenotype and the ability of different combinations of genes and environmental factors to produce similar phenotypes. This study combined genome-wide mapping and a new genetic technique named reciprocal-hemizygosity analysis to achieve the complete dissection of a quantitative trait locus (QTL) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A QTL architecture was uncovered that was more complex than expected. Functional linkages both in cis and in trans were found between three tightly linked quantitative trait genes that are neither necessary nor sufficient in isolation. This arrangement of alleles explains heterosis (hybrid vigour), the increased fitness of the heterozygote compared with homozygotes. It also demonstrates a deficiency in current approaches to QTL dissection with implications extending to traits in other organisms, including human genetic diseases.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Genetics
                Genetics
                Genetics Society of America
                0016-6731
                1943-2631
                January 23 2007
                January 2007
                January 2007
                November 16 2006
                : 175
                : 1
                : 361-374
                Article
                10.1534/genetics.106.066811
                1775001
                17110476
                © 2006

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