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      Molecular Pharmacology of Rosmarinic and Salvianolic Acids: Potential Seeds for Alzheimer’s and Vascular Dementia Drugs

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          Abstract

          Both caffeic acid and 3,4-dihydroxyphenyllactic acid (danshensu) are synthesized through two distinct routs of the shikimic acid biosynthesis pathway. In many plants, especially the rosemary and sage family of Lamiaceae, these two compounds are joined through an ester linkage to form rosmarinic acid (RA). A further structural diversity of RA derivatives in some plants such as Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge is a form of RA dimer, salvianolic acid-B (SA-B), that further give rise to diverse salvianolic acid derivatives. This review provides a comprehensive perspective on the chemistry and pharmacology of these compounds related to their potential therapeutic applications to dementia. The two common causes of dementia, Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and stroke, are employed to scrutinize the effects of these compounds in vitro and in animal models of dementia. Key pharmacological mechanisms beyond the common antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of polyphenols are highlighted with emphasis given to amyloid beta (Aβ) pathologies among others and neuronal regeneration from stem cells.

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          Most cited references 137

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          Alzheimer's disease.

          Alzheimer's disease is the most common cause of dementia. Research advances have enabled detailed understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of the hallmarks of the disease--ie, plaques, composed of amyloid beta (Abeta), and tangles, composed of hyperphosphorylated tau. However, as our knowledge increases so does our appreciation for the pathogenic complexity of the disorder. Familial Alzheimer's disease is a very rare autosomal dominant disease with early onset, caused by mutations in the amyloid precursor protein and presenilin genes, both linked to Abeta metabolism. By contrast with familial disease, sporadic Alzheimer's disease is very common with more than 15 million people affected worldwide. The cause of the sporadic form of the disease is unknown, probably because the disease is heterogeneous, caused by ageing in concert with a complex interaction of both genetic and environmental risk factors. This seminar reviews the key aspects of the disease, including epidemiology, genetics, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment, as well as recent developments and controversies.
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            The cholinergic hypothesis of geriatric memory dysfunction.

            Biochemical, electrophysiological, and pharmacological evidence supporting a role for cholinergic dysfunction in age-related memory disturbances is critically reviewed. An attempt has been made to identify pseudoissues, resolve certain controversies, and clarify misconceptions that have occurred in the literature. Significant cholinergic dysfunctions occur in the aged and demented central nervous system, relationships between these changes and loss of memory exist, similar memory deficits can be artificially induced by blocking cholinergic mechanisms in young subjects, and under certain tightly controlled conditions reliable memory improvements in aged subjects can be achieved after cholinergic stimulation. Conventional attempts to reduce memory impairments in clinical trials hav not been therapeutically successful, however. Possible explanations for these disappointments are given and directions for future laboratory and clinical studies are suggested.
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              Compromised MAPK signaling in human diseases: an update.

              The mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in mammals include c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK), p38 MAPK, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). These enzymes are serine-threonine protein kinases that regulate various cellular activities including proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis or survival, inflammation, and innate immunity. The compromised MAPK signaling pathways contribute to the pathology of diverse human diseases including cancer and neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. The JNK and p38 MAPK signaling pathways are activated by various types of cellular stress such as oxidative, genotoxic, and osmotic stress as well as by proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin 1β. The Ras-Raf-MEK-ERK signaling pathway plays a key role in cancer development through the stimulation of cell proliferation and metastasis. The p38 MAPK pathway contributes to neuroinflammation mediated by glial cells including microglia and astrocytes, and it has also been associated with anticancer drug resistance in colon and liver cancer. We here summarize recent research on the roles of MAPK signaling pathways in human diseases, with a focus on cancer and neurodegenerative conditions.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int J Mol Sci
                Int J Mol Sci
                ijms
                International Journal of Molecular Sciences
                MDPI
                1422-0067
                03 February 2018
                February 2018
                : 19
                : 2
                Affiliations
                Pharmacognosy Research Laboratories & Herbal Analysis Services, University of Greenwich, Central Avenue, Chatham-Maritime, Kent ME4 4TB, UK; s.habtemariam@ 123456herbalanalysis.co.uk ; Tel.: +44-208-331-8302 (ext. 8424)
                Article
                ijms-19-00458
                10.3390/ijms19020458
                5855680
                29401682
                © 2018 by the author.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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