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      Relação entre composição corporal e dislipidemias em crianças e adolescentes Translated title: Relationship between body composition and dyslipidemia in children and adolescentes

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          Abstract

          Resumo Verificou-se a relação entre diferentes índices antropométricos e os lipídios plasmáticos. Os dados foram coletados de 2014 a 2016 em 854 escolares (6-18 anos). Foram aferidas a circunferência da cintura (CC), o percentual de gordura corporal (%G) por bioimpedância, o índice de massa corporal (IMC) e relação da cintura/estatura (RCE). Em sangue coletado em jejum mediu-se o colesterol total (CT), HDLc, e triglicerídeos e calculou-se o colesterol não HDL (Não HDLc). Os dados são apresentados por média ± desvio padrão, porcentagens. A comparação de médias foi feita pelo teste t ou ANOVA seguida de teste de Tukey. A associação entre variáveis foi testada por regressão linear. O estudo foi aprovado pelo Comitê de Ética da Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo. Meninos obesos tinham CT, Não HDLc e LDLc mais elevados do que os eutróficos. Em meninas este achado foi apenas para o Não HDLc. Crianças com o %G e RCE inadequados apresentaram LDLc e Não HDLc maiores (p < 0,001), os quais associaram-se positivamente (p < 0,001) com as frações lipídicas (CT e Não HDLc). O excesso de gordura corporal elevou em 21% a probabilidade de ocorrência de colesterol acima da referência (170 mg/dL). O excesso de gordura corporal associou-se com o perfil lipídico aterogênico (maior Não HDLc), principalmente em meninos.

          Translated abstract

          Abstract We studied the relationship between different anthropometric indexes and plasma lipids. Data were collected from 2014 to 2016 in 854 schoolchildren (6-18 years). Waist circumference (WC), body fat percentage (BFP) by bioimpedance, body mass index (BMI), and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) were measured. Total cholesterol (TC), HDLc, and triglycerides were measured in fasting blood samples and Non-HDL cholesterol (Non-HDLc) was calculated. Data are presented as mean ± standard deviation, with percentages. Means were compared using the t test or ANOVA followed by Tukey’s test. The association between variables was tested by linear regression. The study was approved by the Research Ethics Committee of the Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo. Obese boys had higher TC, non-HDLc, and LDLc than eutrophic boys (p < 0.05). In girls this difference was found only for non-HDLc (p < 0.05). Children with inappropriate BFP and WHtR presented higher LDLc and non-HDLc concentrations (p < 0.001), which showed positive association (p<0.001) with lipid fractions (TC and non-HDLc). Excess body fat increased the probability of cholesterol above the reference value (170 mg/dL) by 21%. Excess body fat was associated with an atherogenic lipid profile (higher non-HDLc), especially in boys.

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          Most cited references 26

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          Novel therapeutic concepts: the epidemic of cardiovascular disease in the developing world: global implications.

          The epidemic of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a global phenomenon, and the magnitude of its increase in incidence and prevalence in low- and middle-income countries (LIMIC) has potentially major implications for those high-income countries that characterize much of the developed world. Cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of death in the world and approximately 80% of all cardiovascular-related deaths occur in LIMIC and at a younger age in comparison to high-income countries. The economic impact in regard to loss of productive years of life and the need to divert scarce resources to tertiary care is substantial. The 'epidemiologic transition' provides a useful framework for understanding changes in the patterns of disease as a result of societal and socioeconomic developments in different countries and regions of the world. A burning but as yet unanswered question is whether gains made over the last four decades in reducing cardiovascular mortality in high-income countries will be offset by changes in risk factor profiles, and in particular obesity and diabetes. Much of the population attributable risk of myocardial infarction is accountable on the basis of nine modifiable traditional risk factors, irrespective of geography. Developing societies are faced with a hostile cardiovascular environment, characterized by changes in diet, exercise, the effects of tobacco, socioeconomic stressors, and economic constraints at both the national and personal level in addition to exposure to potential novel risk factors and perhaps a genetic or programmed foetal vulnerability to CVD in later life. There are major challenges for primary and secondary prevention including lack of data, limited national resources, and the lack of prediction models in certain populations. There are two major approaches to prevention: public health/community-based strategies and clinic-based with a targeted approach to high-risk patients and combinations of these. There are concerns that in comparison with communicable diseases, cardiovascular and chronic diseases have a relatively low priority in the global health agenda and that this requires additional emphasis. The human race has had long experience and a fine tradition in surviving adversity, but we now face a task for which we have little experience, the task of surviving prosperity Alan Gregg 1890-1957, Rockefeller Foundation.
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            National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP): highlights of the report of the Expert Panel on Blood Cholesterol Levels in Children and Adolescents.

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              A review on the genetic, environmental, and lifestyle aspects of the early-life origins of cardiovascular disease.

              This article is a comprehensive review on developmental origins of health and disease regarding various factors related to the origins of cardiovascular diseases from early life. It presents a summary of the impacts of various factors such as epigenetics; gene-environment interaction; ethnic predisposition to cardiovascular diseases and their underlying risk factors; prenatal factors; fetal programming; maternal weight status and weight gain during pregnancy; type of feeding during infancy; growth pattern during childhood; obesity; stunting; socioeconomic status; dietary and physical activity habits; active, secondhand, and thirdhand smoking, as well as environmental factors including air pollution and global climate change on the development and progress of cardiovascular diseases and their risk factors. The importance of early identification of predisposing factors for cardiovascular diseases for primordial and primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases from early life is highlighted. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Journal
                csc
                Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
                Ciênc. saúde coletiva
                ABRASCO - Associação Brasileira de Saúde Coletiva (Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil )
                1413-8123
                1678-4561
                October 2019
                : 24
                : 10
                : 3743-3752
                Affiliations
                Vitória Espírito Santo orgnameUniversidade Federal do Espírito Santo orgdiv1Departamento de Ciências Fisiológicas Brazil polyanaromano@ 123456hotmail.com
                Article
                S1413-81232019001003743
                10.1590/1413-812320182410.17662017

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

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                Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 30, Pages: 10
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