The success of tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) therapy has greatly prolonged the survival time of patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), harboring the characteristic Philadelphia (Ph) chromosome. However, a fraction of patients, achieving complete cytogenetic response after TKI therapy, develop a myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) or acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with additional clonal chromosomal abnormalities in Philadelphia-negative cells (CCA/Ph–).
A 56-year-old woman with AML, developing from Philadelphia-negative CML after TKI therapy. She showed 6 kinds of somatic variants—CEBPA, ATRX, WT1, CSMD1, IKZF1, and LRP1B mutation after diagnosed as AML.
The patient was diagnosed with chronic phase CML that developed to AML after achieving durable complete cytogenetic response (CCR) and major molecular response (MMR).
The patient was treated with TKI therapy at the period of CML. When diagnosed with AML, she received induction chemotherapy regimens, consolidation therapy, and allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation subsequently.
The patient has been CCR and MMR for nearly 4 years, and has achieved complete remission after intervention related to AML. She is now preparing for allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.