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      Case Report of acute myeloid leukemia with “WT1, ATRX, CEBPA, CSMD1, IKZF1, and LRP1B mutation and translocation between chromosome 1 and 19” developing from Philadelphia-negative chronic myeloid leukemia after TKI therapy

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          Abstract

          Rationale:

          The success of tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) therapy has greatly prolonged the survival time of patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), harboring the characteristic Philadelphia (Ph) chromosome. However, a fraction of patients, achieving complete cytogenetic response after TKI therapy, develop a myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) or acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with additional clonal chromosomal abnormalities in Philadelphia-negative cells (CCA/Ph–).

          Patient concerns:

          A 56-year-old woman with AML, developing from Philadelphia-negative CML after TKI therapy. She showed 6 kinds of somatic variants—CEBPA, ATRX, WT1, CSMD1, IKZF1, and LRP1B mutation after diagnosed as AML.

          Diagnosis:

          The patient was diagnosed with chronic phase CML that developed to AML after achieving durable complete cytogenetic response (CCR) and major molecular response (MMR).

          Interventions:

          The patient was treated with TKI therapy at the period of CML. When diagnosed with AML, she received induction chemotherapy regimens, consolidation therapy, and allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation subsequently.

          Outcomes:

          The patient has been CCR and MMR for nearly 4 years, and has achieved complete remission after intervention related to AML. She is now preparing for allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

          Lessons:

          These rare occurrences highlight the importance of exploring the relevant pathogenesis of AML developing from CML after TKI therapy. In addition to monitoring molecular changes in the course of CML, cytogenetic analysis, or next-generation sequencing of CML patients should be performed.

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          Most cited references 13

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          The biology of chronic myeloid leukemia.

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            Nilotinib vs imatinib in patients with newly diagnosed Philadelphia chromosome-positive chronic myeloid leukemia in chronic phase: ENESTnd 3-year follow-up.

            Evaluating Nilotinib Efficacy and Safety in Clinical Trials Newly Diagnosed Patients compares nilotinib and imatinib in patients with newly diagnosed chronic myeloid leukemia in chronic phase (CML-CP). With a minimum follow-up of 3 years, major molecular response, molecular response of BCR-ABL≤ 0.01% expressed on the international scale (BCR-ABL(IS); MR(4)) and BCR-ABL(IS)≤ 0.0032% (MR(4.5)) rates were significantly higher with nilotinib compared with imatinib, and differences in the depth of molecular response between nilotinib and imatinib have increased over time. No new progressions occurred on treatment since the 2-year analysis. Nilotinib was associated with a significantly lower probability of progression to accelerated phase/blast crisis vs imatinib (two (0.7%) progressions on nilotinib 300 mg twice daily, three (1.1%) on nilotinib 400 mg twice daily and 12 (4.2%) on imatinib). When considering progressions occurring after study treatment discontinuation, the advantage of nilotinib over imatinib in preventing progression remained significant (nine (3.2%) progressions on nilotinib 300 mg twice daily, six (2.1%) on nilotinib 400 mg twice daily and 19 (6.7%) on imatinib). Both nilotinib and imatinib were well tolerated, with minimal changes in safety over time. Nilotinib continues to demonstrate superior efficacy in all key response and outcome parameters compared with imatinib for the treatment of patients with newly diagnosed CML-CP.
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              Chronic Myeloid Leukemia, Version 1.2019, NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology

              Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is defined by the presence of Philadelphia chromosome (Ph), resulting from a reciprocal translocation between chromosomes 9 and 22 [t(9;22] that gives rise to a BCR-ABL1 fusion gene. CML occurs in 3 different phases (chronic, accelerated, and blast phase) and is usually diagnosed in the chronic phase. Tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) therapy is a highly effective first-line treatment option for all patients with newly diagnosed chronic phase CML (CP-CML). The selection TKI therapy should be based on the risk score, toxicity profile of TKI, patient's age, ability to tolerate therapy, and the presence of comorbid conditions. This manuscript discusses the recommendations outlined in the NCCN Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of patients with CP-CML.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Medicine (Baltimore)
                Medicine (Baltimore)
                MEDI
                Medicine
                Wolters Kluwer Health
                0025-7974
                1536-5964
                17 January 2020
                January 2020
                : 99
                : 3
                Affiliations
                Department of Hematology, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, The First People's Hospital of Changzhou, Changzhou, Jiangsu 213200, China.
                Author notes
                []Correspondence: Yun Ling, Department of Hematology, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, The First People's Hospital of Changzhou, Changzhou, Jiangsu 213000, China (e-mail: a110426007@ 123456hotmail.com ).
                Article
                MD-D-19-04462 18888
                10.1097/MD.0000000000018888
                7220085
                32011516
                Copyright © 2020 the Author(s). Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 (CCBY), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0

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                Research Article
                Clinical Case Report
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