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      Lipid Abnormalities in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients with Overt Nephropathy

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          Diabetic nephropathy is a major complication of diabetes and an established risk factor for cardiovascular events. Lipid abnormalities occur in patients with diabetic nephropathy, which further increase their risk for cardiovascular events. We compared the degree of dyslipidemia among type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) subjects with and without nephropathy and analyzed the factors associated with nephropathy among them.


          In this retrospective study, T2DM patients with overt nephropathy were enrolled in the study group ( n=89) and without nephropathy were enrolled in the control group ( n=92). Both groups were matched for age and duration of diabetes. Data on total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), urea and creatinine were collected from the case sheets. TG/HDL-C ratio, a surrogate marker for small, dense, LDL particles (sdLDL) and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) were calculated using equations. Multivariate analysis was done to determine the factors associated with eGFR.


          Dyslipidemia was present among 56.52% of control subjects and 75.28% of nephropathy subjects ( P=0.012). The percentage of subjects with atherogenic dyslipidemia (high TG+low HDL-C+sdLDL) was 14.13 among controls and 14.61 among nephropathy subjects. Though serum creatinine was not significantly different, mean eGFR value was significantly lower among nephropathy patients ( P=0.002). Upon multivariate analysis, it was found that TC ( P=0.007) and HDL-C ( P=0.06) were associated with eGFR among our study subjects.


          Our results show that dyslipidemia was highly prevalent among subjects with nephropathy. Regular screening for dyslipidemia may be beneficial in controlling the risk for adverse events among diabetic nephropathy patients.

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          Statins frequently are used to prevent cardiovascular events. Several recent studies suggest that statins also may have renal benefits, although this is controversial. This systematic review and meta-analysis were performed to assess the effect of statins on change in kidney function and urinary protein excretion. Medline, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, conference proceedings, and the authors' personal files were searched. Published or unpublished randomized, controlled trials or crossover trials of statins that reported assessment of kidney function or proteinuria were included, and studies of individuals with ESRD were excluded. Data were extracted for study design, subject characteristics, type of statin and dose, baseline/change in cholesterol levels, and outcomes (change in measured or estimated GFR [eGFR] and/or urinary protein excretion). Weighted mean differences were calculated for the change in GFR between statin and control groups using a random-effects model. A random-effects model also was used to calculate the standardized mean difference for the change in urinary protein excretion between groups. Twenty-seven eligible studies with 39,704 participants (21 with data for eGFR and 20 for proteinuria or albuminuria) were identified. Overall, the change in the weighted mean differences for eGFR was statistically significant (1.22 ml/min per yr slower in statin recipients; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.44 to 2.00). In subgroup analysis, the benefit of statin therapy was statistically significant in studies of participants with cardiovascular disease (0.93 ml/min per yr slower than control subjects; 95% CI 0.10 to 1.76) but was NS for studies of participants with diabetic or hypertensive kidney disease or glomerulonephritis. The standardized mean difference for the reduction in albuminuria or proteinuria as a result of statin therapy was statistically significant (0.58 units of SD greater in statin recipients; 95% CI 0.17 to 0.98). Statin therapy seems to reduce proteinuria modestly and results in a small reduction in the rate of kidney function loss, especially in populations with cardiovascular disease.
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            Efficacy of atenolol and captopril in reducing risk of macrovascular and microvascular complications in type 2 diabetes: UKPDS 39. UK Prospective Diabetes Study Group.

            To determine whether tight control of blood pressure with either a beta blocker or an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor has a specific advantage or disadvantage in preventing the macrovascular and microvascular complications of type 2 diabetes. Randomised controlled trial comparing an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (captopril) with a beta blocker (atenolol) in patients with type 2 diabetes aiming at a blood pressure of =300 mg/l (5% and 9%). The proportion of patients with hypoglycaemic attacks was not different between groups, but mean weight gain in the atenolol group was greater (3.4 kg v 1.6 kg). Blood pressure lowering with captopril or atenolol was similarly effective in reducing the incidence of diabetic complications. This study provided no evidence that either drug has any specific beneficial or deleterious effect, suggesting that blood pressure reduction in itself may be more important than the treatment used.
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              Cholesterol and the risk of renal dysfunction in apparently healthy men.

              Despite extensive knowledge about abnormal lipid patterns in patients with end-stage renal disease, the association between cholesterol and the development of renal dysfunction is unclear. We evaluated this association in a prospective cohort study among 4,483 initially healthy men participating in the Physicians' Health Study who provided blood samples in 1982 and 1996. Main outcome measures were elevated creatinine, defined as >/= 1.5 mg/dl (133 micromol/L), and reduced estimated creatinine clearance, defined as /= 240 mg/dl), HDL ( /= 40 mg/dl), total non-HDL cholesterol, and the ratio of total cholesterol to HDL. We used logistic regression to calculate age- and multivariable adjusted odds ratios as a measure for the relative risk. After 14 yr, 134 men (3.0%) had elevated creatinine and 244 (5.4%) had reduced creatinine clearance. The multivariable relative risk for elevated creatinine was 1.77 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.10 to 2.86) for total cholesterol >/= 240 mg/dl, 2.16 (95% CI, 1.42 to 3.27) for HDL /= >6.8), and 2.16 (95% CI, 1.22 to 3.80) for the highest quartile of non-HDL cholesterol (>/= 196.1). Similar although smaller associations were observed between cholesterol parameters and reduced creatinine clearance. Elevated total cholesterol, high non-HDL cholesterol, a high ratio of total cholesterol/HDL, and low HDL in particular were significantly associated with an increased risk of developing renal dysfunction in men with an initial creatinine <1.5 mg/dl.

                Author and article information

                Diabetes Metab J
                Diabetes Metab J
                Diabetes & Metabolism Journal
                Korean Diabetes Association
                April 2017
                11 January 2017
                : 41
                : 2
                : 128-134
                M.V. Hospital for Diabetes & Prof. M. Viswanathan Diabetes Research Centre, Chennai, India.
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Sabitha Palazhy. M.V. Hospital for Diabetes & Prof. M. Viswanathan Diabetes Research Centre, No. 4, West Madha Church St, Royapuram, Chennai 600013, India. sabitha.palazhy@ 123456gmail.com
                Copyright © 2017 Korean Diabetes Association

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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