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Glycopyrronium once-daily significantly improves lung function and health status when combined with salmeterol/fluticasone in patients with COPD: the GLISTEN study—a randomised controlled trial

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      Abstract

      BackgroundThe optimal use of various therapeutic combinations for moderate/severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is unclear. The GLISTEN trial compared the efficacy of two long-acting anti-muscarinic antagonists (LAMA), when combined with an inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) and a long-acting β2 agonist (LABA).MethodsThis randomised, blinded, placebo-controlled trial in moderate/severe COPD patients compared once-daily glycopyrronium (GLY) 50 µg, once-daily tiotropium (TIO) 18 µg or placebo (PLA), when combined with salmeterol/fluticasone propionate (SAL/FP) 50/500 µg twice daily. The primary objective was to determine the non-inferiority of GLY+SAL/FP versus TIO+SAL/FP on trough FEV1 after 12 weeks. An important secondary objective was whether addition of GLY to SAL/FP was better than SAL/FP alone.Results773 patients (mean FEV1 57.2% predicted) were randomised; 84.9% completed the trial. At week 12, GLY+SAL/FP demonstrated non-inferiority to TIO+SAL/FP for trough FEV1: least square mean treatment difference (LSMdiff) −7 mL (SE 17.4) with a lower limit for non-inferiority of −60 mL. There was significant increase in week 12 trough FEV1 with GLY+SAL/FP versus PLA+SAL/FP (LSMdiff 101 mL, p<0.001). At 12 weeks, GLY+SAL/FP produced significant improvement in St George's Respiratory Questionnaire total score versus PLA+SAL/FP (LSMdiff −2.154, p=0.02). GLY+SAL/FP demonstrated significant rescue medication reduction versus PLA+SAL/FP (LSMdiff −0.72 puffs/day, p<0.001). Serious adverse events were similar for GLY+SAL/FP, TIO+SAL/FP and PLA+SAL/FP with an incidence of 5.8%, 8.5% and 5.8%, respectively.ConclusionsGLY+SAL/FP showed comparable improvements in lung function, health status and rescue medication to TIO+SAL/FP. Importantly, addition of GLY to SAL/FP demonstrated significant improvements in lung function, health status and rescue medication compared to SAL/FP.Trial registration numberNCT01513460.

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      Standardisation of spirometry.

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        Salmeterol and fluticasone propionate and survival in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

        Long-acting beta-agonists and inhaled corticosteroids are used to treat chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but their effect on survival is unknown. We conducted a randomized, double-blind trial comparing salmeterol at a dose of 50 microg plus fluticasone propionate at a dose of 500 microg twice daily (combination regimen), administered with a single inhaler, with placebo, salmeterol alone, or fluticasone propionate alone for a period of 3 years. The primary outcome was death from any cause for the comparison between the combination regimen and placebo; the frequency of exacerbations, health status, and spirometric values were also assessed. Of 6112 patients in the efficacy population, 875 died within 3 years after the start of the study treatment. All-cause mortality rates were 12.6% in the combination-therapy group, 15.2% in the placebo group, 13.5% in the salmeterol group, and 16.0% in the fluticasone group. The hazard ratio for death in the combination-therapy group, as compared with the placebo group, was 0.825 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.681 to 1.002; P=0.052, adjusted for the interim analyses), corresponding to a difference of 2.6 percentage points or a reduction in the risk of death of 17.5%. The mortality rate for salmeterol alone or fluticasone propionate alone did not differ significantly from that for placebo. As compared with placebo, the combination regimen reduced the annual rate of exacerbations from 1.13 to 0.85 and improved health status and spirometric values (P<0.001 for all comparisons with placebo). There was no difference in the incidence of ocular or bone side effects. The probability of having pneumonia reported as an adverse event was higher among patients receiving medications containing fluticasone propionate (19.6% in the combination-therapy group and 18.3% in the fluticasone group) than in the placebo group (12.3%, P<0.001 for comparisons between these treatments and placebo). The reduction in death from all causes among patients with COPD in the combination-therapy group did not reach the predetermined level of statistical significance. There were significant benefits in all other outcomes among these patients. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00268216 [ClinicalTrials.gov].). Copyright 2007 Massachusetts Medical Society.
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          A 4-year trial of tiotropium in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

          Previous studies showing that tiotropium improves multiple end points in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) led us to examine the long-term effects of tiotropium therapy. In this randomized, double-blind trial, we compared 4 years of therapy with either tiotropium or placebo in patients with COPD who were permitted to use all respiratory medications except inhaled anticholinergic drugs. The patients were at least 40 years of age, with a forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV(1)) of 70% or less after bronchodilation and a ratio of FEV(1) to forced vital capacity (FVC) of 70% or less. Coprimary end points were the rate of decline in the mean FEV(1) before and after bronchodilation beginning on day 30. Secondary end points included measures of FVC, changes in response on St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ), exacerbations of COPD, and mortality. Of a total of 5993 patients (mean age, 65+/-8 years) with a mean FEV(1) of 1.32+/-0.44 liters after bronchodilation (48% of predicted value), we randomly assigned 2987 to the tiotropium group and 3006 to the placebo group. Mean absolute improvements in FEV(1) in the tiotropium group were maintained throughout the trial (ranging from 87 to 103 ml before bronchodilation and from 47 to 65 ml after bronchodilation), as compared with the placebo group (P<0.001). After day 30, the differences between the two groups in the rate of decline in the mean FEV(1) before and after bronchodilation were not significant. The mean absolute total score on the SGRQ was improved (lower) in the tiotropium group, as compared with the placebo group, at each time point throughout the 4-year period (ranging from 2.3 to 3.3 units, P<0.001). At 4 years and 30 days, tiotropium was associated with a reduction in the risks of exacerbations, related hospitalizations, and respiratory failure. In patients with COPD, therapy with tiotropium was associated with improvements in lung function, quality of life, and exacerbations during a 4-year period but did not significantly reduce the rate of decline in FEV(1). (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00144339.) 2008 Massachusetts Medical Society
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            [1 ]Respiratory Clinical Research Unit, Repatriation General Hospital , Adelaide, South Australia, Australia
            [2 ]The Lung Health Clinic, Centre for Asthma Allergy and Respiratory Research, University of Western Australia, and the Lung Institute of Western Australia , Perth, Western Australia, Australia
            [3 ]Department of Respiratory Medicine, Gosford Hospital , Gosford, New South Wales, Australia
            [4 ]Department of Respiratory and Sleep Medicine, Waikato Hospital , Hamilton, New Zealand
            [5 ]St John of God Hospital , Murdoch, Western Australia, Australia
            [6 ]Medical Centre, Redcliffe Peninsula 7 Day Medical Centre , Brisbane, Queensland, Australia
            [7 ]Clinical Development and Medical Affairs, Novartis Pharmaceuticals Australia Pty Limited , Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
            Author notes
            [Correspondence to ] Professor Peter Frith, Respiratory Medicine, Southern Adelaide Local Health Network, Repatriation General Hospital, 216 Daws Rd, Daw Park, SA 5041, Australia; Peter.frith@ 123456health.sa.gov.au

            PAF and PJT contributed equally.

            Journal
            Thorax
            Thorax
            thoraxjnl
            thorax
            Thorax
            BMJ Publishing Group (BMA House, Tavistock Square, London, WC1H 9JR )
            0040-6376
            1468-3296
            June 2015
            4 April 2015
            : 70
            : 6
            : 519-527
            25841237
            4453631
            thoraxjnl-2014-206670
            10.1136/thoraxjnl-2014-206670
            (Collab), (Collab), (Collab), (Collab), (Collab), (Collab), (Collab), (Collab), (Collab), (Collab), (Collab), (Collab), (Collab), (Collab), (Collab), (Collab), (Collab), (Collab), (Collab), (Collab), (Collab), (Collab), (Collab), (Collab), (Collab), (Collab), (Collab), (Collab), (Collab), (Collab), (Collab), (Collab), (Collab), (Collab), (Collab), (Collab), (Collab), (Collab), (Collab), (Collab), (Collab), (Collab), (Collab), (Collab), (Collab), (Collab), (Collab), (Collab), (Collab), (Collab), (Collab), (Collab), (Collab), (Collab), (Collab), (Collab), (Collab), (Collab), (Collab), (Collab), (Collab), (Collab), (Collab), (Collab), (Collab), (Collab)
            Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions

            This is an Open Access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/

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            1506
            Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
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            Surgery

            copd pharmacology

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