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      Effect of Ticlopidine Hydrochloride on Erythropoietin-Induced Rise in Blood Pressure in Patients on Maintenance Hemodialysis


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          Background/Aims: A recent observation that antiplatelet-aggregation drugs, including ticlopidine hydrochloride, may prevent erythropoietin (EPO)-induced rise in blood pressure in hemodialysis (HD) patients remains a subject of particular interest. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of ticlopidine hydrochloride on EPO-induced rise in blood pressure of HD patients with special reference to blood levels of vasoactive substances. Methods: HD patients who showed hypertension or aggravation of preceding hypertension with EPO treatment were selected for this study. Ticlopidine hydrochloride was administered at a dose of 200 mg daily for 4 weeks. Blood pressure and serum levels of nitric oxide (NO), atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and endothelin (ET) were determined before and after drug administration. Patients were divided into two groups, one of which showed a drop in mean blood pressure (MBP) of >10 mm Hg (group I) and one which did not (group II), and a comparison was made between them with respect to the blood parameters. Results: Five of 15 patients showed a drop of MBP of >10 mm Hg (group I), and 10 patients did not show any change in MBP (group II). In group I, there was a significant increase in blood NO levels compared to the concentrations before ticlopidine administration, while there was no change in group II. With respect to ANP and ET, there was no significant change in either of the groups. Conclusion: The findings suggest that the preventive effect of ticlopidine hydrochloride on EPO-induced rise in blood pressure may partly be related to the enhancement of NO production in patients on maintenance HD.

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          Evidence for amelioration of endothelial cell dysfunction by erythropoietin therapy in predialysis patients.

          Evidence for the involvement of endothelial cells in the pathogenesis or erythropoietin-induced hypertension, and for endothelial cell damage in patients with chronic renal failure, has emerged and appears to be of major concern. We, therefore, investigated the effect of recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) therapy on endothelium-derived hormones in predialysis patients with progressive renal anemia. At the entry to the trial, the serum thrombomodulin concentration (Tm) and plasma endothelin-1 concentration (ET-1) in the predialysis patients were significantly higher than those in age- and sex-matched normal subjects. Following a 16 week period of treatment with 6000IU rHuEPO given intravenously once a week, patients' hematocrit increased from 27.1 +/- 2.6% to 34.6 +/- 3.2% (n = 16, P < .001). A positive correlation was found between Tm and serum creatinine concentration (Cr) (r = 0.61, P < .05 (n = 16), but no correlation was found between ET-1 and Cr. Tm and Tm/Cr significantly decreased from 7.9 +/- 2.8 ng/mL to 6.6 +/- 2.4 ng/mL (P < .01, n = 16), and from 2.1 +/- 0.7 (x10(-10) to 1.6 +/- 0.7 (x10(-10), P < .01, n = 16), respectively. However, there was no change in ET-1 as a result of the rHuEPO therapy. Creatinine clearance (Ccr), Cr, total amount of daily Tm excretion, Tm clearance/Ccr, daily urinary protein and albumin excretion, and blood pressure also remained unchanged throughout the trail. The present study indicates that correcting anemia by rHuEPO therapy reduces an abnormally elevated Tm in predialysis patients while blood pressure and renal function remain unchanged, suggesting that rHuEPO has a beneficial effect on endothelial cell dysfunction in chronic renal failure patients. This effect may be mediated via an improved oxygen supply to the endothelial cells due to the amelioration of anemia by rHuEPO.
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            The effect of erythropoietin on interleukin-1beta mediated increase in nitric oxide synthesis in vascular smooth muscle cells.

            Recently, we observed that recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) inhibits the interleukin (IL)-1beta induced nitric oxide (NO) production and inducible NO synthase (iNOS) expression in cultured rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). The mechanisms of these inhibitory effects of rHuEPO were evaluated. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed to identify a specific erythropoietin receptor (EpoR). Tyrosine phosphorylation of phospholipase C (PLC) was analyzed by combination of immunoprecipitation and Western blotting. Protein kinase C (PKC) activities were analyzed by phosphorylation assay of myelin basic protein (MBP4-14). VSMC were incubated with test agents for 24 h and nitrite as a stable NO metabolite was measured. iNOS mRNA and protein expression was analyzed by Northern and Western blotting, respectively. RT-PCR analysis revealed that EpoR m-RNA was expressed; furthermore, it might be alternatively spliced in VSMC. rHuEPO induced tyrosine phosphorylation of PLC-gamma1 and activation of PKC. rHuEPO inhibited not only IL-1beta induced nitrite production, but also the expression of iNOS mRNA and protein. These inhibitory effects of rHuEPO were reversed in the presence of PKC inhibitors, calphostin C (1 pmol/l) or staurosporine (10 nmol/l). PKC activation by phorbol myristate acetate inhibited nitrite production. The inhibitory effect of rHuEPO on IL-1beta induced nitrite production was also eliminated in PKC depleted cells or in the existence of anti-EpoR antibody. rHuEPO inhibits IL-1beta induced NO production by suppressing iNOS mRNA and protein expressions through EpoR, and the PLC-gamma1 and PKC pathway may be involved.
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              Ticlopidine Increases Nitric Oxide Generation in Heart-Transplant Recipients: A Possible Novel Property of Ticlopidine


                Author and article information

                S. Karger AG
                August 2002
                15 July 2002
                : 91
                : 4
                : 654-658
                Division of Nephrology, Internal Medicine, Jichi Medical School, Minamikawachi, Tochigi, Japan
                65027 Nephron 2002;91:654–658
                © 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 2, References: 26, Pages: 5
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/65027
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                Self URI (journal page): https://www.karger.com/SubjectArea/Nephrology
                Original Paper

                Cardiovascular Medicine,Nephrology
                Ticlopidine hydrochloride,Nitric oxide,Erythropoietin,Hypertension,Hemodialysis


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