To assess whether parathyroidectomy (PTx) affects blood pressure (BP) in hemodialysis (HD) patients, we studied 11 uremics on HD treatment for 8.2 ± 0.9 years who underwent successful PTx. As the control group, we selected 11 HD patients not submitted to PTx, matched with the study group for sex, age, years on HD, dialysis procedure and BP values. In the controls, BP and body weight did not change during the 2 years of observation. In the patients, BP remained stable in the year before PTx. PTx caused a progressive reduction in BP in 7 of the 11 patients. The fall was significant from the 3rd quarter onward (mean BP values before PTx: 139/82 mm Hg, 1 year after PTx: 122/75 mm Hg). The magnitude of the hypotensive effect of PTx was related to the pre-PTx systolic BP value (r = -0.70, p = 0.016). PTx also caused a significant progressive increase in body weight (1.56 ± 0.57 kg 1 year after PTx). In conclusion, PTx causes BP fall in HD patients regardless of whether their preintervention values are normal or increased. The BP reduction occurs in concomitance with a consistent increase in body weight. BP variations are clinically relevant and may be related to the post-PTx calcium efflux from the vessel wall.