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      Duplication of the Pituitary Gland (DPG)-Plus Syndrome Associated With Midline Anomalies and Precocious Puberty: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

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          Duplication of the pituitary gland (DPG)-plus syndrome is a very rare developmental disorder with few cases described in the literature and characterized by multiple midline and central nervous system malformations. The hypothalamus and hypophysis involvement may be clinically associated with endocrine abnormalities. A 5.9-year-old female child was admitted to our Clinic for premature thelarche and acceleration of growth. DPG-plus syndrome with paired infundibula and pituitary glands was diagnosed after birth, when she appeared small for gestational age and she presented with lingual hypoplasia, cleft palate, right choanal stenosis, nasopharyngeal teratoma, and facial dysmorphisms. Neuroimaging revealed a duplication of the infundibula, the pituitary gland, and the dens of the epistropheus despite surgical removal of a rhino-pharyngeal mass performed at the age of two months. An array-CGH revealed a 2p12 deletion. At our evaluation, bone age assessment resulted advanced and initial pubertal activation was confirmed by Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone stimulation test. Hormonal suppression treatment was started with satisfactory results. This case shows that DPG-plus syndrome must be considered in presence of midline and craniofacial malformations and endocrinological evaluations should be performed for the prompt and appropriate management of pubertal anomalies.

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          Most cited references 16

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          Clinical longitudinal standards for height, weight, height velocity, weight velocity, and stages of puberty.

          New charts for height, weight, height velocity, and weight velocity are presented for clinical (as opposed to population survey) use. They are based on longitudinal-type growth curves, using the same data as in the British 1965 growth standards. In the velocity standards centiles are given for children who are early- and late-maturing as well as for those who mature at the average age (thus extending the use of the previous charts). Limits of normality for the age of occurrence of the adolescent growth spurt are given and also for the successive stages of penis, testes, and pubic hair development in boys, and for stages of breast and pubic hair development in girls.
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            Italian cross-sectional growth charts for height, weight and BMI (2 to 20 yr).

            The aim of this study is to extend to pre-school ages the Italian Society for Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetes (SIEDP)-2002 growth charts for height, weight and body mass index (BMI), to obtain charts (SIEDP-2006) that apply to the Italian population from 2 to 20 yr of age, taken as a whole, or separately in two geographical areas (Central-North Italy and South Italy). The charts are based on a sample of about 70,000 subjects attending infant, primary and secondary schools, between 1994 and 2004. The distribution of the sample by gender, age and geographic area was roughly similar to that of Italian school population in the last decade of the 20th century. Height and weight were measured using portable Harpenden stadiometers and properly calibrated scales, respectively. SIEDP-2006 references are presented both as centiles and as LMS curves for the calculation of SD scores, and include the extra-centiles for overweight and obesity. Large differences in BMI growth pattern emerged between the SIEDP-2006, 2000 CDC and UK90 references: in Italy, BMI is higher and its distribution is more skewed during childhood and adolescence. At the end of growth, median values of the three references are similar, but the 97th centile of 2000 CDC charts is much higher and increases more steeply than that of SIEDP-2006 charts, which on the contrary reach a plateau. SIEDP-2006 references intend to supply pediatricians with a tool that avoids the use of charts that are outdated or that refer to other populations, and thus should be suitable for adequately monitoring the growth of their patients.
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              Consensus statement on the use of gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs in children.

              Gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs revolutionized the treatment of central precocious puberty. However, questions remain regarding their optimal use in central precocious puberty and other conditions. The Lawson Wilkins Pediatric Endocrine Society and the European Society for Pediatric Endocrinology convened a consensus conference to review the clinical use of gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs in children and adolescents. When selecting the 30 participants, consideration was given to equal representation from North America (United States and Canada) and Europe, an equal male/female ratio, and a balanced spectrum of professional seniority and expertise. Preference was given to articles written in English with long-term outcome data. The US Public Health grading system was used to grade evidence and rate the strength of conclusions. When evidence was insufficient, conclusions were based on expert opinion. Participants were put into working groups with assigned topics and specific questions. Written materials were prepared and distributed before the conference, revised on the basis of input during the meeting, and presented to the full assembly for final review. If consensus could not be reached, conclusions were based on majority vote. All participants approved the final statement. The efficacy of gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs in increasing adult height is undisputed only in early-onset (girls <6 years old) central precocious puberty. Other key areas, such as the psychosocial effects of central precocious puberty and their alteration by gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs, need additional study. Few controlled prospective studies have been performed with gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs in children, and many conclusions rely in part on collective expert opinion. The conference did not endorse commonly voiced concerns regarding the use of gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs, such as promotion of weight gain or long-term diminution of bone mineral density. Use of gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs for conditions other than central precocious puberty requires additional investigation and cannot be suggested routinely.

                Author and article information

                Front Endocrinol (Lausanne)
                Front Endocrinol (Lausanne)
                Front. Endocrinol.
                Frontiers in Endocrinology
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                26 May 2021
                : 12
                1 Pediatric Clinic, Department of Medicine and Surgery, University of Parma , Parma, Italy
                2 Maxillo-Facial Surgery Unit, Department of Medicine and Surgery, University of Parma , Parma, Italy
                3 Neuroradiology Unit, University Hospital of Parma , Parma, Italy
                Author notes

                Edited by: Madhusmita Misra, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, United States

                Reviewed by: Takayoshi Ubuka, Cancer Medical Service, Japan; Erica Ann Eugster, Riley Hospital for Children, United States

                *Correspondence: Susanna Esposito, susannamariaroberta.esposito@ 123456unipr.it

                This article was submitted to Pediatric Endocrinology, a section of the journal Frontiers in Endocrinology

                Copyright © 2021 Prezioso, Petraroli, Bergonzani, Davino, Labate, Ormitti, Anghinoni, Sesenna and Esposito

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 3, Equations: 0, References: 16, Pages: 5, Words: 2340
                Case Report


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