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      Cerebrosides and Steroids from the Edible Mushroom Meripilus giganteus with Antioxidant Potential

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          Abstract

          The detailed chemical analysis of the methanol extract of Meripilus giganteus (Pers.) P. Karst. led to the isolation of two new cerebrosides, mericeramides A ( 1) and B ( 2) together with cerebroside B ( 3), ergosterol ( 4), 3β-hydroxyergosta-7,22-diene ( 5), cerevisterol ( 6), 3β-hydroxyergosta-6,8(14),22-triene ( 7), 3β- O-glucopyranosyl-5,8-epidioxyergosta-6,22-diene ( 8) and (11 E,13 E)-9,10-dihydroxy-11,13-octadecadienoic acid ( 9). The structures of the compounds were determined on the basis of NMR and MS spectroscopic analysis. Mericeramide A ( 1) is the first representative of halogenated natural cerebrosides. The isolated fungal metabolites 19 were evaluated for their antioxidant activity using the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay. Compounds 2, 5 and 9 proved to possess considerable antioxidant effects, with 2.50 ± 0.29, 4.94 ± 0.37 and 4.27 ± 0.05 mmol TE/g values, respectively. The result obtained gives a notable addition to the chemical and bioactivity profile of M. giganteus, highlighting the possible contribution of this species to a versatile and balanced diet.

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          Most cited references 31

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          A revised family-level classification of the Polyporales (Basidiomycota).

          Polyporales is strongly supported as a clade of Agaricomycetes, but the lack of a consensus higher-level classification within the group is a barrier to further taxonomic revision. We amplified nrLSU, nrITS, and rpb1 genes across the Polyporales, with a special focus on the latter. We combined the new sequences with molecular data generated during the PolyPEET project and performed Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic analyses. Analyses of our final 3-gene dataset (292 Polyporales taxa) provide a phylogenetic overview of the order that we translate here into a formal family-level classification. Eighteen clades are assigned a family name, including three families described as new (Cerrenaceae fam. nov., Gelatoporiaceae fam. nov., Panaceae fam. nov.) and fifteen others (Dacryobolaceae, Fomitopsidaceae, Grifolaceae, Hyphodermataceae, Incrustoporiaceae, Irpicaceae, Ischnodermataceae, Laetiporaceae, Meripilaceae, Meruliaceae, Phanerochaetaceae, Podoscyphaceae, Polyporaceae, Sparassidaceae, Steccherinaceae). Three clades are given informal names (/hypochnicium,/climacocystis and/fibroporia + amyloporia). Four taxa (Candelabrochete africana, Mycoleptodonoides vassiljevae, Auriporia aurea, and Tyromyces merulinus) cannot be assigned to a family within the Polyporales. The classification proposed here provides a framework for further taxonomic revision and will facilitate communication among applied and basic scientists. A survey of morphological, anatomical, physiological, and genetic traits confirms the plasticity of characters previously emphasized in taxonomy of Polyporales.
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            Bioactive metabolites from the mycelia of the basidiomycete Hericium erinaceum.

            Seven known compounds, three diketopiperazine alkaloids, 12β-hydroxyverruculogen TR-2 (1), fumitremorgin C (2) and methylthiogliotoxin (5), two hetero-spirocyclic γ-lactam alkaloids, pseurotin A (3) and FD-838 (4), and cerevisterol (6) and herierin IV (7), were isolated from the mycelia of the basidiomycete Hericium erinaceum and identified by spectroscopic analyses. The antioxidant and antifungal activities of compounds 1-6 were evaluated. The results indicated that compounds 1, 3 and 6 exhibited potential antioxidant activity against DPPH (2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical with their IC50 data of ca. 12 μM, compared with positive control tertiary butylhydroquinone. In addition, compound 4 significantly inhibited the growth of two plant fungal pathogens Botrytis cinerea and Glomerella cingulata with an minimum inhibitory concentration of 6.25 μM for each, similar to that of the positive fungicide, carbendazim. Compounds 1-5 were isolated from the genus Hericium for the first time.
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              Neuer Versuch einer systematischen Einteilung der Schwämme

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Molecules
                Molecules
                molecules
                Molecules
                MDPI
                1420-3049
                19 March 2020
                March 2020
                : 25
                : 6
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Pharmacognosy, Interdisciplinary Excellence Centre, University of Szeged, Eötvös u. 6, H-6720 Szeged, Hungary; sarkozy@ 123456pharmacognosy.hu (A.S.); zombozope@ 123456pharmacognosy.hu (Z.P.Z.)
                [2 ]Spectroscopic Research Department, Gedeon Richter Plc., Gyömrői út 19-21, H-1103 Budapest, Hungary; z.beni@ 123456richter.hu (Z.B.); M.Dekany@ 123456richter.hu (M.D.)
                [3 ]Department of Plant Production and Plant Protection, University of Kaposvár, Guba S u. 40, H-7400 Kaposvár, Hungary; rukinga@ 123456freemail.hu
                [4 ]Department of Botany, Szent István University, Villányi út 29-43, H-1118 Budapest, Hungary; Papp.Viktor@ 123456kertk.szie.hu
                [5 ]Interdisciplinary Centre for Natural Products, University of Szeged, Eötvös u. 6, H-6720 Szeged, Hungary
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: hohmann@ 123456pharm.u-szeged.hu (J.H.); vanyolosa@ 123456pharmacognosy.hu (A.V.); Tel.: +36-62-54-6455 (J.H. & A.V.)
                Article
                molecules-25-01395
                10.3390/molecules25061395
                7144561
                32204362
                8c26882d-dc1a-4aec-a938-9a4639e019d7
                © 2020 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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