Gregory G. Bishop a , Pete Wiegman a , Coleen McNamara a , Salah Din a , John Sanders a , Sean Hesselbacher a , Mike Feldman a , John A. McPherson a , John E. Humphries a , Marie-Louise Hammarskjold a , Lawrence W. Gimple a , Michael Ragosta a , Eric R. Powers a , David Dickek b , Gary K. Owens a , Ian J. Sarembock a
28 October 1999
Intravascular delivery of an E1/E3 deleted adenovirus encoding the hirudin protein reduces neointimal formation in the rat arterial injury model. Given the interspecies variability in response to adenoviral vectors, we tested this same construct in the hirudin-sensitive cholesterol-fed rabbit arterial balloon injury model. We hypothesized that local delivery of an E1/E3-deleted adenovirus encoding hirudin (Ad-Hir) in addition to early hirudin infusion would limit neointimal formation compared to early hirudin alone. Methods and Results: Local delivery of Ad-Hir, 2.5 × 10<sup>10</sup> PFU/ml, using a double balloon catheter [n = 6 vessels (v)] produced a 79% reduction in vessel wall thrombin activity at 48 h after balloon angioplasty (BA) compared with vehicle (Veh, n = 6v; p = 0.05). In chronic experiments, hypercholesterolemic rabbits underwent femoral BA, and received either early hirudin alone (n = 9v) or early hirudin plus locally delivered Ad-Hir (early hirudin + Ad-Hir; n = 9v), an E1/E3-deleted adenovirus encoding β-galactosidase (early hirudin + AdGal; n = 7v), or Veh (early hirudin + Veh; n = 10v). Early hirudin + Ad-Hir did not limit the arterial response to injury versus the other groups at 4 weeks after BA. Plaque area, cross-sectional luminal area narrowing by plaque, and T cell infiltration were significantly increased in the adenovirus- versus non-adenovirus-treated arteries. Plaque area correlated with T cell density. Conclusion: Following BA in cholesterol-fed rabbits, local transduction with A-Hir produced a marked reduction in vessel wall-associated thrombin activity. However, this strategy increased rather than decreased the arterial response to BA injury. Our results suggest that the lack of therapeutic effect resulted from adenovirus-stimulated plaque formation, possibly resulting from a T cell-mediated inflammatory response.