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      Local Adenovirus-Mediated Delivery of Hirudin in a Rabbit Arterial Injury Model

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          Abstract

          Intravascular delivery of an E1/E3 deleted adenovirus encoding the hirudin protein reduces neointimal formation in the rat arterial injury model. Given the interspecies variability in response to adenoviral vectors, we tested this same construct in the hirudin-sensitive cholesterol-fed rabbit arterial balloon injury model. We hypothesized that local delivery of an E1/E3-deleted adenovirus encoding hirudin (Ad-Hir) in addition to early hirudin infusion would limit neointimal formation compared to early hirudin alone. Methods and Results: Local delivery of Ad-Hir, 2.5 × 10<sup>10</sup> PFU/ml, using a double balloon catheter [n = 6 vessels (v)] produced a 79% reduction in vessel wall thrombin activity at 48 h after balloon angioplasty (BA) compared with vehicle (Veh, n = 6v; p = 0.05). In chronic experiments, hypercholesterolemic rabbits underwent femoral BA, and received either early hirudin alone (n = 9v) or early hirudin plus locally delivered Ad-Hir (early hirudin + Ad-Hir; n = 9v), an E1/E3-deleted adenovirus encoding β-galactosidase (early hirudin + AdGal; n = 7v), or Veh (early hirudin + Veh; n = 10v). Early hirudin + Ad-Hir did not limit the arterial response to injury versus the other groups at 4 weeks after BA. Plaque area, cross-sectional luminal area narrowing by plaque, and T cell infiltration were significantly increased in the adenovirus- versus non-adenovirus-treated arteries. Plaque area correlated with T cell density. Conclusion: Following BA in cholesterol-fed rabbits, local transduction with A-Hir produced a marked reduction in vessel wall-associated thrombin activity. However, this strategy increased rather than decreased the arterial response to BA injury. Our results suggest that the lack of therapeutic effect resulted from adenovirus-stimulated plaque formation, possibly resulting from a T cell-mediated inflammatory response.

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          Most cited references 6

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          Cholesterol reduction in cardiovascular disease. Clinical benefits and possible mechanisms.

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            A new adenoviral vector: Replacement of all viral coding sequences with 28 kb of DNA independently expressing both full-length dystrophin and beta-galactosidase.

            Adenoviral vector-mediated gene transfer offers significant potential for gene therapy of many human diseases. However, progress has been slowed by several limitations. First, the insert capacity of currently available adenoviral vectors is limited to 8 kb of foreign DNA. Second, the expression of viral proteins in infected cells is believed to trigger a cellular immune response that results in inflammation and in only transient expression of the transferred gene. We report the development of a new adenoviral vector that has all viral coding sequences removed. Thus, large inserts are accommodated and expression of all viral proteins is eliminated. The first application of this vector system carries a dual expression cassette comprising 28.2 kb of nonviral DNA that includes the full-length murine dystrophin cDNA under control of a large muscle-specific promoter and a lacZ reporter construct. Using this vector, we demonstrate independent expression of both genes in primary mdx (dystrophin-deficient) muscle cells.
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              Treatment with bivalirudin (Hirulog) as compared with heparin during coronary angioplasty for unstable or postinfarction angina. Hirulog Angioplasty Study Investigators.

              Heparin is often administered during and after coronary angioplasty to prevent closure of the dilated vessel. However, ischemic or hemorrhagic complications occur in 5 to 10 percent of treated patients. We studied whether these complications could be prevented when the direct thrombin inhibitor bivalirudin (Hirulog) was used in place of heparin. We performed a double-blind, randomized trial in 4098 patients undergoing angioplasty for unstable or postinfarction angina. Patients were assigned to receive either heparin or bivalirudin immediately before angioplasty. The primary end point were death in the hospital, myocardial infarction, abrupt vessel closure, or rapid clinical deterioration of cardiac origin. In the total study group, bivalirudin did not significantly reduce the incidence of the primary end point (11.4 percent, vs. 12.2 percent for heparin) but did result in a lower incidence of bleeding (3.8 percent vs. 9.8 percent, P < 0.001). In the prospectively stratified subgroup of 704 patients with postinfarction angina, bivalirudin therapy resulted in a lower incidence of the primary end point (9.1 percent vs. 14.2 percent, P = 0.04) and a lower incidence of bleeding (3.0 percent vs. 11.1 percent, P < 0.001), but in a similar cumulative rate of death, myocardial infarction, and repeated revascularization in the six months after angioplasty (20.5 percent vs. 25.1 percent, P = 0.17). Bivalirudin was at least as effective as high-dose heparin in preventing ischemic complications in patients who underwent angioplasty for unstable angina, and it carried a lower risk of bleeding. Bivalirudin, as compared with heparin, reduced the risk of immediate ischemic complications in patients with postinfarction angina, but this difference was no longer apparent after six months.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                JVR
                J Vasc Res
                10.1159/issn.1018-1172
                Journal of Vascular Research
                S. Karger AG
                1018-1172
                1423-0135
                1999
                October 1999
                28 October 1999
                : 36
                : 5
                : 344-352
                Affiliations
                aDepartment of Medicine, Cardiovascular Division, University of Virginia Health Science Center, Charlottesville, Va., and bGladstone Institute of Cardiovascular Disease, San Francisco, Calif., USA
                Article
                25672 J Vasc Res 1999;36:343–352
                10.1159/000025672
                10559674
                © 1999 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 7, Tables: 1, References: 46, Pages: 9
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