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Caracterización espirométrica de pacientes con fibrosis quística Translated title: Spirometric caracterization of cystic fibrosis patients

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      Abstract

      Resumen: Introducción: El pronóstico de los pacientes con fibrosis quística (FQ) ha mejorado en forma notable. La evaluación de la progresión de la enfermedad se basa en la medición del Volumen Espirado al primer segundo (VEF1). Objetivos: 1. Describir volúmenes y flujos espiratorios forza dos y comparar su interpretación según diferentes patrones de referencia (Knudson, multiétnicas Global Lung Initiative, Gutiérrez); 2. Comparar evolución de VEF1 según diferentes patrones de referencia; 3. Describir respuesta a broncodilatador. Pacientes y Método: Estudio retrospectivo de fichas clínicas y espirometrías de pacientes con FQ controlados en Hospital Dr. Sótero del Río. Se obtuvo antecedentes demográficos, resultados de prueba de sudor, estudio genético, estudio bacteriológico. Se evaluó respuesta a broncodilatador (salbutamol 400 ugr), considerando signi ficativo un aumento en 12% en el VEF1. El valor de cloro en sudor se obtuvo mediante método de Gibson y Cooke. Se registraron: Capacidad Vital Forzada (CVF), Volumen Espirado al primer segundo (VEF1) y relación VEF1/CVF. Para graficar la progresión del VEF1 en el tiempo y las curvas teóricas de GLI, Knudson y Gutiérrez, se utilizó el software de libre distribución R versión 3.3.1. Resultados: Se incluyeron 14 pacientes, 7 varones, edad entre 6 y 24 años, mediana 15 años, me diana índice de masa corporal (IMC) 18,15 (rango 14,6-23,3), mediana cloro en sudor 76 mEq/l (rango 50,2- 119), 7 pacientes con al menos 1 mutación F508del. Al utilizar fórmulas predictivas multiétnicas y de Gutiérrez, el compromiso de la función pulmonar ocurría con anterioridad en re lación al uso de ecuaciones de Knudson. Ninguno de los pacientes presentó respuesta significativa a broncodilatador. Conclusión: El grupo de pacientes descritos presenta en su mayoría compromiso funcional respiratorio y no tiene respuesta a broncodilatador. La interpretación del compromiso funcional respiratorio varía según los valores teóricos utilizados.

      Translated abstract

      Abstract: Introduction: The prognosis of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) has remarkably improved. The as sessment of the disease progression is based on the measurement of the FEV1 (Forced Expiratory Volume in one second). Objectives: 1. To describe forced expiratory flows and volumes and com pare their interpretation according to different reference standards (Knudson, Gutiérrez, and multi ethnic GLI); 2. To describe bronchodilator response. Patients and Method: The medical records and spirometries of all patients with CF controlled at the Dr. Sotero del Rio Hospital were reviewed. Demographic background, sweat test results, genetic study , and bacteriological study were obtained. In addition, Forced Vital Capacity (FVC) was recorded as well as FEV1 and FEV1/FVC ratio. Re sults: Data from 14 patients, were analyzed, seven males, aged 6-24 years, median 15 years, median BMI 18.15 (range 14.6-23.3), median sweat chloride test 76 mEq/l (range 50,2-119 mEq/l), seven patients with at least one F508del mutation. Using multi-ethnic and Gutierrez predictive formulas, lung function involvement occurred previously in relation to the use of Knudson equations. None of the patients had a significant bronchodilator response. Conclusion: The group of patients descri bed mostly presents functional respiratory involvement and had no bronchodilator response. The interpretation of functional respiratory involvement varies according to the theoretical values used.

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      Most cited references 40

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      Multi-ethnic reference values for spirometry for the 3-95-yr age range: the global lung function 2012 equations.

      The aim of the Task Force was to derive continuous prediction equations and their lower limits of normal for spirometric indices, which are applicable globally. Over 160,000 data points from 72 centres in 33 countries were shared with the European Respiratory Society Global Lung Function Initiative. Eliminating data that could not be used (mostly missing ethnic group, some outliers) left 97,759 records of healthy nonsmokers (55.3% females) aged 2.5-95 yrs. Lung function data were collated and prediction equations derived using the LMS method, which allows simultaneous modelling of the mean (mu), the coefficient of variation (sigma) and skewness (lambda) of a distribution family. After discarding 23,572 records, mostly because they could not be combined with other ethnic or geographic groups, reference equations were derived for healthy individuals aged 3-95 yrs for Caucasians (n=57,395), African-Americans (n=3,545), and North (n=4,992) and South East Asians (n=8,255). Forced expiratory value in 1 s (FEV(1)) and forced vital capacity (FVC) between ethnic groups differed proportionally from that in Caucasians, such that FEV(1)/FVC remained virtually independent of ethnic group. For individuals not represented by these four groups, or of mixed ethnic origins, a composite equation taken as the average of the above equations is provided to facilitate interpretation until a more appropriate solution is developed. Spirometric prediction equations for the 3-95-age range are now available that include appropriate age-dependent lower limits of normal. They can be applied globally to different ethnic groups. Additional data from the Indian subcontinent and Arabic, Polynesian and Latin American countries, as well as Africa will further improve these equations in the future.
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        Guidelines for diagnosis of cystic fibrosis in newborns through older adults: Cystic Fibrosis Foundation consensus report.

        Newborn screening (NBS) for cystic fibrosis (CF) is increasingly being implemented and is soon likely to be in use throughout the United States, because early detection permits access to specialized medical care and improves outcomes. The diagnosis of CF is not always straightforward, however. The sweat chloride test remains the gold standard for CF diagnosis but does not always give a clear answer. Genotype analysis also does not always provide clarity; more than 1500 mutations have been identified in the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene, not all of which result in CF. Harmful mutations in the gene can present as a spectrum of pathology ranging from sinusitis in adulthood to severe lung, pancreatic, or liver disease in infancy. Thus, CF identified postnatally must remain a clinical diagnosis. To provide guidance for the diagnosis of both infants with positive NBS results and older patients presenting with an indistinct clinical picture, the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation convened a meeting of experts in the field of CF diagnosis. Their recommendations, presented herein, involve a combination of clinical presentation, laboratory testing, and genetics to confirm a diagnosis of CF.
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          Cystic fibrosis pulmonary guidelines: chronic medications for maintenance of lung health.

          Cystic fibrosis is a recessive genetic disease characterized by dehydration of the airway surface liquid and impaired mucociliary clearance. As a result, individuals with the disease have difficulty clearing pathogens from the lung and experience chronic pulmonary infections and inflammation. Death is usually a result of respiratory failure. Newly introduced therapies and aggressive management of the lung disease have resulted in great improvements in length and quality of life, with the result that the median expected survival age has reached 36 years. However, as the number of treatments expands, the medical regimen becomes increasingly burdensome in time, money, and health resources. Hence, it is important that treatments should be recommended on the basis of available evidence of efficacy and safety. The Cystic Fibrosis Foundation therefore established a committee to examine the clinical evidence for each therapy and to provide guidance for the prescription of these therapies. The committee members developed and refined a series of questions related to drug therapies used in the maintenance of pulmonary function. We addressed the questions in one of three ways, based on available evidence: (1) commissioned systematic review, (2) modified systematic review, or (3) summary of existing Cochrane reviews. It is hoped that the guidelines provided in this article will facilitate the appropriate application of these treatments to improve and extend the lives of all individuals with cystic fibrosis.
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            Santiago de Chile orgnamePontificia Universidad Católica de Chile orgdiv1Facultad Medicina orgdiv2Departamento Cardiología y Enfermedades Respiratorias Pediátricas Chile
            Santiago de Chile orgnamePontificia Universidad Católica de Chile orgdiv1Facultad de Medicina orgdiv2División Pediatría Chile
            Santiago orgnameHospital Dr. Sótero del Río orgdiv1CDT Juan Pefaur Chile
            Santiago orgnameHospital Dr. Sótero del Río orgdiv1Servicio Pediatría Chile
            Santiago de Chile orgnamePontificia Universidad Católica de Chile orgdiv1Facultad de Medicina orgdiv2Departamento Salud Pública Chile
            Contributors
            Role: ND
            Role: ND
            Role: ND
            Role: ND
            Role: ND
            Role: ND
            Journal
            rcp
            Revista chilena de pediatría
            Rev. chil. pediatr.
            Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría (Santiago, , Chile )
            0370-4106
            June 2018
            : 89
            : 3
            : 332-338
            S0370-41062018000300332

            This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

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            Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 41, Pages: 7
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            Product Information: SciELO Chile

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