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      Chromosome numbers for the Italian flora: 5

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      Italian Botanist

      Pensoft Publishers

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          Abstract

          In this contribution new chromosome data obtained on material collected in Italy are presented. It includes 7 chromosome counts for Centaurea (Asteraceae).

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          An inventory of the names of vascular plants endemic to Italy, their loci classici and types

          The census of the loci classici of 1,400 Italian endemic vascular plants (i.e. not thriving elsewhere with the exception of Corsica and Malta) is here presented and described. The effective place of publication of accepted names, basionyms and homotypic synonyms were identified and critically verified. This often resulted in some change in authorship attribution and, in seven cases, in validation problems (Asperula cynanchica var. lactea var. nov., A. lactea comb. nov., Biscutella laevigata subsp. raffaelliana subsp. nov., Ferulago nodosa subsp. geniculata comb. & stat. nov., Limonium tineoi comb. nov., L. usticanum sp. nov., Noccaea torreana comb. nov.). The geographic information on the loci classici was excerpted from the protologues, as well as information on typification for the taxa described before 1 January 1958. The names without holotype are 796. For 347 names a lecto- or neo-typification is available in literature, while 449 currently accepted taxa still need of type designation.
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            Phylogeny of the Centaurea group (Centaurea, Compositae) - geography is a better predictor than morphology.

            The Centaurea group is part of the Circum-Mediterranean Clade (CMC) of genus Centaurea subgenus Centaurea, a mainly Mediterranean plant group with more than 200 described species. The group is traditionally split on morphological basis into three sections: Centaurea, Phalolepis and Willkommia. This division, however, is doubtful, especially in light of molecular approaches. In this study we try to resolve this phylogenetic problem and to consolidate the circumscription and delimitation of the entire group against other closely related groups. We analyzed nuclear (internal transcribed spacer of the ribosomal genes) and chloroplast (rpl32-trnL intergenic spacer) DNA regions for most of the described species of the Centaurea group using phylogenetic and network approaches, and we checked the data for recombination. Phylogeny was used to reconstruct the evolution of the lacerate-membranaceous bract appendages using parsimony. The magnitude of incomplete lineage sorting was tested estimating the effective population sizes. Molecular dating was performed using a Bayesian approach, and the ancestral area reconstruction was conducted using the Dispersal-Extinction-Cladogenesis method. Monophyly of the Centaurea group is confirmed if a few species are removed. Our results do not support the traditional sectional division. There is a high incongruence between the two markers and between genetic data and morphology. However, there is a clear relation between geography and the structure of the molecular data. Diversification in the Centaurea group mainly took place during the Pliocene and Pleistocene. The ancestral area infered for the Circum-Mediterranean Clade of Centaurea is the Eastern Mediterranean, whereas for the Centaurea group it is most likely NW-Africa. The large incongruencies, which hamper phylogenetic reconstruction, are probably the result of introgression, even though the presence of incomplete lineage sorting as an additional factor cannot be ruled out. Convergent evolution of morphological traits may have led to incongruence between morphology-based, traditional systematics and molecular results. Our results also cast major doubts about current species delimitation.
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              The orophilous cushion-like vegetation of the Sila Massif (S Italy)

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Italian Botanist
                IB
                Pensoft Publishers
                2531-4033
                June 12 2018
                June 12 2018
                : 5
                : 101-108
                Article
                10.3897/italianbotanist.5.26855
                © 2018

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