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FDG-PET/CT imaging in assessing mucin-producing non-small cell lung cancer with pathologic correlation

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Annals of Nuclear Medicine

Springer Nature

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      Non-small cell lung cancer: prospective comparison of integrated FDG PET/CT and CT alone for preoperative staging.

      To evaluate prospectively the accuracy of integrated positron emission tomography (PET) and computed tomography (CT) with use of fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), compared with that of stand-alone CT, for the preoperative staging of non-small cell lung cancer, with surgical and histologic findings used as the reference standard. Institutional review board approval and patient informed consent were obtained. From November 2003 to February 2004, 106 patients (78 men, 28 women; mean age, 56 years) with non-small cell lung cancer underwent curative surgical resection (tumor resection and lymph node dissection) after stand-alone CT followed by integrated FDG PET/CT. Tumor stages were determined by using the TNM and American Joint Committee on Cancer staging systems. Histopathologic results served as the reference standard. Statistically significant differences in tumor staging between integrated PET/CT and stand-alone CT were determined with P < .05 obtained by using the McNemar test or with a generalized estimating equation. The primary tumor was correctly staged in 84 patients (79%) at stand-alone CT and in 91 patients (86%) at integrated FDG PET/CT (P = .25). For the depiction of malignant nodes, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of CT were 70% (23 of 33 nodal groups), 69% (248 of 360), and 69% (271 of 393), respectively, whereas those of PET/CT were 85% (28 of 33), 84% (302 of 360), and 84% (330 of 393) (P = .25, P < .001, and P < .001, respectively). There were 112 false-positive interpretations at CT for 54 hilar, 16 subcarinal, 29 paratracheal, 10 subaortic, and two pulmonary ligament nodal groups and one upper paratracheal group, compared with only 58 false-positive interpretations at PET/CT for 32 hilar, seven subcarinal, 13 lower paratracheal, and six subaortic nodal groups. There were 10 false-negative interpretations at CT for four hilar, two lower paratracheal, and two subcarinal nodal groups, one prevascular and retrotracheal group, and one inferior pulmonary group, but only five false-negative interpretations at PET/CT (one each for paratracheal, subaortic, subcarinal, inferior pulmonary, and hilar nodal groups). Integrated FDG PET/CT is significantly better than stand-alone CT for lung cancer staging and provides enhanced accuracy and specificity in nodal staging.
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        Evaluation of F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET scanning for pulmonary nodules less than 3 cm in diameter, with special reference to the CT images.

        While pulmonary nodules can be substantially divided into solid and ground-glass opacity (GGO) ones on CT image, they have different biological natures which could cause false positive or false negative to diagnose malignancy on positron emission tomography with fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG-PET). To determine the effectiveness of PET for small pulmonary nodules, the nodules were classified into solid and GGO ones, of which results were compared with the data of PET scans. The lower limit size of nodules for PET imaging was also evaluated. Prospective FDG-PET scans were undertaken for 136 non-calcified nodules less than 3 cm in diameter. CT density histograms were made for each nodule to classify into solid and GGO ones. Eighty-one nodules were malignant and 55 were benign. All of the 20 nodules less than 1 cm in diameter (n = 8 in malignant, n = 12 in benign), were negative on PET regardless of the histology. In the 116 nodules 1-3 cm in diameter (n = 73 in malignant, n = 43 in benign), there were 15 false negative and 15 false positive nodules, with a sensitivity of 79% and specificity of 65%. CT density histograms showed 101 solid nodules (n = 63 in malignant, n = 38 in benign) and 15 GGO nodules ( n = 10 in malignant, n = 5 in benign). All of the 10 malignant nodules with GGO images were histologically well-differentiated adenocarcinoma and 9 of them (90%) were false negative on PET. Four of the 5 (80%) benign nodules with GGO images were focal pneumonia with well-preserved air spaces, causing false positive on PET. Sensitivity and specificity for nodules with GGO images were 10 and 20%, respectively, which were significantly lower than 90 and 71% for nodules with solid images (P < 0.001). Pulmonary nodules which are less than 1cm in size or show GGO images on CT cannot be evaluated accurately by PET. Copyright 2004 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
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          FDG PET evaluation of mucinous neoplasms: correlation of FDG uptake with histopathologic features.

          Our goal was to assess the sensitivity of positron emission tomography (PET) with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) for the detection of mucinous carcinoma and to determine the histologic features of these tumors that may affect lesion detectability. A retrospective review of all patients with mucinous carcinoma who had undergone FDG PET at our institution from 1995 through 1998 identified 25 patients with new or recurrent mucinous carcinoma at the time of PET. In 22 of these patients, tissue specimens available from either core biopsy or surgical resection allowed detailed histologic analysis. FDG PET revealed mucinous carcinoma in only 13 (59%) of 22 patients, resulting in an unusually high percentage (41%) of false-negative results. Two histologic features were found to be predictive of FDG PET results: tumor cellularity (p = 0.011) and the amount of mucin within the tumor mass (p = 0.009). There was a positive correlation between tumor FDG uptake and cellularity but a negative correlation with the amount of mucin. FDG PET is limited in the evaluation of mucinous tumors, particularly in hypocellular lesions with abundant mucin.
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            Author and article information

            Journal
            Annals of Nuclear Medicine
            Ann Nucl Med
            Springer Nature
            0914-7187
            1864-6433
            June 2010
            March 20 2010
            : 24
            : 5
            : 357-362
            10.1007/s12149-010-0358-x
            © 2010
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