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      Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide in the Hypothalamus and Pituitary

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          Abstract

          Data are presented to show that vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is synthesized and secreted by the hypothalamus and anterior pituitary and that it participates in the regulation of pituitary functions. Immunoreactive VIP in the hypothalamus and pituitary is increased following estrogen treatment and adrenalectomy and is reduced in hyperprolactinemic states. The level of VIP mRNA in the hypothalamus is increased during lactation and sexual maturation, while that in the anterior pituitary shows a sexual dimorphism and is increased with estrogen treatment and hypothyroidism. All these findings suggest a physiological regulation of hypothalamic and pituitary VIP gene expression in relation to its potential role as a neuroendocrine hormone. Furthermore, VIP stimulates prolactin (PRL) release at concentrations attainable in the hypophyseal-portal blood. Passive immunoneutralization studies with anti-VIP antisera suggest that endogenous VIP acts at multiple loci in the hypothalamic-pituitary axis to regulate PRL secretion, interacting possibly with other regulators of PRL secretion such as estrogen, serotonin, cholecystokinin, prostaglandins, galanin and oxytocin. Regarding other pituitary functions, although VIP has been shown to release growth hormone, ACTH, and vasopressin in vivo and in vitro, the physiological significance of these findings remains to be determined.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          NEN
          Neuroendocrinology
          10.1159/issn.0028-3835
          Neuroendocrinology
          S. Karger AG
          978-3-8055-5357-5
          978-3-8055-8861-4
          0028-3835
          1423-0194
          1991
          1991
          04 April 2008
          : 53
          : Suppl 1
          : 45-51
          Affiliations
          Department of Medicine, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong
          Article
          125795 Neuroendocrinology 1991;53:45–51
          10.1159/000125795
          1901391
          © 1991 S. Karger AG, Basel

          Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

          Page count
          Pages: 7
          Categories
          Original Paper

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