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      Increased contractile responses to 5-hydroxytryptamine and Angiotensin II in high fat diet fed rat thoracic aorta

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      Lipids in Health and Disease
      BioMed Central

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          Abstract

          Background

          Feeding normal rats with high dietary levels of saturated fat leads to pathological conditions, which are quite similar to syndrome X in humans. These conditions such as hypertriglyceridemia, hypercholesterolemia, obesity, and hyperglycemia might induce hypertension through various mechanisms. Metabolic syndrome and the resulting NIDDM represent a major clinical challenge because implementation of treatment strategies is difficult. Vascular abnormalities probably contribute to the etiology of many diabetic complications including nephropathy, neuropathy, retinopathy, and cardiomyopathy. It has been shown that in Streptozotocin induced diabetic animals there is an increase in maximal responses to 5-Hydroxytryptamine and Angiotensin II. The purpose of this study was to evaluate High fat diet fed rats for the development of hypertriglyceridemia, hypercholesterolemia, hyperinsulinemia and hyperglycemia and to assess their vascular responses to 5-Hydroxytryptamine and Angiotensin II.

          Methods

          Male Sprague Dawley rats were used for this study and were divided into two equal groups. One of the groups was fed with normal pellet diet and they served as the control group, whereas the other group was on a high fat diet for 4 weeks. Body weight, plasma triglycerides, plasma cholesterol, and plasma glucose were measured every week. Intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test was performed after 4 weeks of feeding. At the end of fourth week of high fat diet feeding, thoracic aortae were removed, and cut into helical strips for vascular reactivity studies. Dose-response curves of 5-Hydroxytryptamine and Angiotensin II were obtained.

          Results

          There was no significant difference in pD 2, with 5-Hydroxytryptamine and Angiotensin II in both groups but E max was increased.

          Conclusions

          These results suggest that hypertension in high fat diet rats is associated with increased in vitro vascular reactivity to 5-HT and Ang II.

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          Most cited references16

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          Hypertension and associated metabolic abnormalities--the role of insulin resistance and the sympathoadrenal system.

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            Diabetes, lipids, and adipocyte secretagogues.

            That obesity is associated with insulin resistance and type II diabetes mellitus is well accepted. Overloading of white adipose tissue beyond its storage capacity leads to lipid disorders in non-adipose tissues, namely skeletal and cardiac muscles, pancreas, and liver, effects that are often mediated through increased non-esterified fatty acid fluxes. This in turn leads to a tissue-specific disordered insulin response and increased lipid deposition and lipotoxicity, coupled to abnormal plasma metabolic and (or) lipoprotein profiles. Thus, the importance of functional adipocytes is crucial, as highlighted by the disorders seen in both "too much" (obesity) and "too little" (lipodystrophy) white adipose tissue. However, beyond its capacity for fat storage, white adipose tissue is now well recognised as an endocrine tissue producing multiple hormones whose plasma levels are altered in obese, insulin-resistant, and diabetic subjects. The consequence of these hormonal alterations with respect to both glucose and lipid metabolism in insulin target tissues is just beginning to be understood. The present review will focus on a number of these hormones: acylation-stimulating protein, leptin, adiponectin, tumour necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-6, and resistin, defining their changes induced in obesity and diabetes mellitus and highlighting their functional properties that may protect or worsen lipid metabolism.
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              Blood serotonergic mechanisms in type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus.

              Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5HT) is believed to play a role in vasospasm and increased platelet aggregability that in turn could contribute to atherosclerosis. The present study was designed to evaluate a possible participation of serotonin in the development of vascular complications in diabetes mellitus. Whole blood and plasma serotonin, the platelet uptake and release of the amine and serotonin- induced platelet aggregation were studied in 32 patients with Type 2 diabetes. The patients were divided into three groups according to the presence and advancement of retinopathy. Mean levels of blood serotonin content were significantly lower in diabetic patients. The concentration of the amine in the plasma was markedly increased in diabetes. It was correlated with vascular changes of the retina. We established that platelets from diabetic patients took up less serotonin when compared to the control group. Concomitantly enhanced spontaneous release of 5HT from platelets was observed. The platelets of diabetic patients showed increased response to serotonin. There was a relation between serotonin-induced aggregation and the presence of retinopathy. These results suggest that serotonin may be involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic vasculopathy.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Lipids Health Dis
                Lipids in Health and Disease
                BioMed Central (London )
                1476-511X
                2004
                2 August 2004
                : 3
                : 19
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, North Dakota State University, Fargo, North Dakota 58105, USA
                [2 ]Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Sector 67, Phase-X, S.A.S. Nagar 160 062, Punjab, India
                Article
                1476-511X-3-19
                10.1186/1476-511X-3-19
                509282
                15287987
                8c521464-6c7b-46de-ad2c-9fe31bb02bb6
                Copyright © 2004 Ghatta and Ramarao; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                History
                : 23 June 2004
                : 2 August 2004
                Categories
                Research

                Biochemistry
                Biochemistry

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