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      Do driver’s characteristics, system performance, perceived safety, and trust influence how drivers use partial automation? A structural equation modelling analysis


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          Translated abstract

          The present study surveyed actual extensive users of SAE Level 2 partially automated cars to investigate how driver’s characteristics (i.e., socio-demographics, driving experience, personality), system performance, perceived safety, and trust in partial automation influence use of partial automation. 81% of respondents stated that they use their automated car with speed (ACC) and steering assist (LKA) at least 1–2 times a week, and 84 and 92% activate LKA and ACC at least occasionally. Respondents positively rated the performance of Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) and Lane Keeping Assistance (LKA). ACC was rated higher than LKA and detection of lead vehicles and lane markings was rated higher than smooth control for ACC and LKA, respectively. Respondents reported to primarily disengage (i.e., turn off) partial automation due to a lack of trust in the system and when driving is fun. They rarely disengaged the system when they noticed they become bored or sleepy. Structural equation modelling revealed that trust had a positive effect on driver’s propensity for secondary task engagement during partially automated driving, while the effect of perceived safety was not significant. Regarding driver’s characteristics, we did not find a significant effect of age on perceived safety and trust in partial automation. Neuroticism negatively correlated with perceived safety and trust, while extraversion did not impact perceived safety and trust. The remaining three personality dimensions ‘openness’, ‘conscientiousness’, and ‘agreeableness’ did not form valid and reliable scales in the confirmatory factor analysis, and could thus not be subjected to the structural equation modelling analysis. Future research should re-assess the suitability of the short 10-item scale as measure of the Big-Five personality traits, and investigate the impact on perceived safety, trust, use and use of automation.

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          Most cited references72

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          Consumer Acceptance and Use of Information Technology: Extending the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology

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                Author and article information

                Front Psychol
                Front Psychol
                Front. Psychol.
                Frontiers in Psychology
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                17 April 2023
                : 14
                : 1125031
                [1] 1Department Transport and Planning, Delft University of Technology , Delft, Netherlands
                [2] 2Department Cognitive Robotics, Delft University of Technology , Delft, Netherlands
                [3] 3Toyota Motor Europe NV/SA , Brussels, Belgium
                Author notes

                Edited by: Sebastian Hergeth, BMW (Germany), Germany

                Reviewed by: Francesco N. Biondi, University of Windsor, Canada; Xuqun You, Shaanxi Normal University, China

                *Correspondence: Sina Nordhoff, s.nordhoff@ 123456tudelft.nl

                This article was submitted to Human-Media Interaction, a section of the journal Frontiers in Psychology

                Copyright © 2023 Nordhoff, Stapel, He, Gentner and Happee.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                : 15 December 2022
                : 06 March 2023
                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 7, Equations: 0, References: 83, Pages: 17, Words: 11430
                Original Research

                Clinical Psychology & Psychiatry
                partial automation,system performance,driver-initiated disengagements,perceived safety,trust,personality


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