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      The knockdown of c-myc expression by RNAi inhibits cell proliferation in human colon cancer HT-29 cells in vitro and in vivo

      , ,

      Cellular & Molecular Biology Letters

      SP Versita

      c-myc, Cell proliferation, HT-29, siRNA

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          Abstract

          We investigated the effects of RNA interference-mediated silencing of the c-myc gene on celluar proliferation and apoptosis in human colon cancer HT-29 cells in vitro and in vivo. A small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting c-myc was designed, the DNA template was synthesized, and the siRNA was obtained by in vitro transcription. After siRNA transfection into HT-29 and human neuroblastoma IMR-32 cells with Lipofectamine 2000™, the proliferation of the HT-29 and IMR-32 cells was assessed via 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) colorimetry, and Hoechst 33258 staining was used to observe cell apoptosis. Following gene transfer to HT-29 cells, the expression of c-myc mRNA was examined via reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, and the level of the protein via Western blot assay. Growth curves were constructed and in vivo experiments were performed on nude mice to assess the effects of c-myc silencing on tumor growth. The c-myc expression in the tumor tissue was measured by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and subsequently by immunohistochemistry. Our paper demonstrates that the delivery of siRNA directed against c-myc not only efficiently down-regulated the expression of c-myc, inhibited the proliferation of HT-29 cells and induced apoptosis in vitro, but also suppressed the growth of colon cancer cells in vivo.

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          Most cited references 21

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          The Myc/Max/Mad network and the transcriptional control of cell behavior.

          The Myc/Max/Mad network comprises a group of transcription factors whose distinct interactions result in gene-specific transcriptional activation or repression. A great deal of research indicates that the functions of the network play roles in cell proliferation, differentiation, and death. In this review we focus on the Myc and Mad protein families and attempt to relate their biological functions to their transcriptional activities and gene targets. Both Myc and Mad, as well as the more recently described Mnt and Mga proteins, form heterodimers with Max, permitting binding to specific DNA sequences. These DNA-bound heterodimers recruit coactivator or corepressor complexes that generate alterations in chromatin structure, which in turn modulate transcription. Initial identification of target genes suggests that the network regulates genes involved in the cell cycle, growth, life span, and morphology. Because Myc and Mad proteins are expressed in response to diverse signaling pathways, the network can be viewed as a functional module which acts to convert environmental signals into specific gene-regulatory programs.
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            c-Myc target genes involved in cell growth, apoptosis, and metabolism.

             Linh Dang (1998)
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              c-Myc in breast cancer.

              Ever since Bishop and his co-workers discovered the c-myc gene in the late 1970s (Bishop 1982), voluminous literature has documented its central role in proliferation and malignant transformation of human and animal cells (Amati et al. 1998, Bouchard et al. 1998, Dang et al. 1999). Most, if not all, types of human malignancy have been reported to have amplification and/or overexpression of this gene, although the frequency of these alterations varies greatly among different reports (Nesbit et al. 1999). In 1992, researchers started to realize that aberrant expression of c-myc could cause apoptosis (Evan et al. 1992, Shi et al. 1992), although the phenomenon had actually been observed much earlier (Wurm et al. 1986). Studies in recent years have further shown that the c-myc gene regulates growth, both in the sense of cell size and in the context of tissue differentiation (Gandarillas & Watt 1997, Iritani & Eisenman 1999, Johnston et al. 1999, Schmidt 1999, Schuhmacher et al. 1999). Thus, it is now known that the c-myc gene participates in most aspects of cellular function, including replication, growth, metabolism, differentiation, and apoptosis (Packham & Cleveland 1995, Hoffman & Liebermann 1998, Dang 1999, Dang et al. 1999, Elend & Eilers 1999, Prendergast 1999). How the c-Myc protein may be specifically directed to perform one, but not the others, of these functions is still obscure, despite the fact that the relevant literature has been accumulating at a fast pace in the past two decades. This review focuses on the profound roles of c-Myc in breast cancer and in the actions of the hormones that are eitologically related to breast cancer.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                geyinlin@126.com
                Journal
                Cell Mol Biol Lett
                Cell. Mol. Biol. Lett
                Cellular & Molecular Biology Letters
                SP Versita (Heidelberg )
                1425-8153
                1689-1392
                28 January 2009
                June 2009
                : 14
                : 2
                : 305-318
                Affiliations
                GRID grid.410645.2, ISNI 0000000104550905, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Medical College, , Qingdao University, ; Qingdao, 266021 China
                Article
                1
                10.2478/s11658-009-0001-9
                6275647
                19183865
                © © Versita Warsaw and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2009
                Categories
                Research Article
                Custom metadata
                © © Versita Warsaw and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2009

                sirna, c-myc, cell proliferation, ht-29

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