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Relación entre el índice de masa corporal y las cifras de tensión arterial en adolescentes

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      Abstract

      Objetivos: Investigar la relación entre el índice de masa corporal (IMC) y las cifras de tensión arterial en adolescentes de la ciudad de Mérida, dada su asociación con el desarrollo de enfermedades crónicas no trasmisibles en el adulto. Métodos: Se estudiaron 385 adolescentes, 62,3% de sexo femenino y 37,7% de masculino, entre 12 y 15 años de edad, con promedio de 15,17±1,71 años. Se les tomaron las medidas antropométricas, para el cálculo del IMC, y la tensión arterial (TA) en posición sentada. Se consideraron normales el IMC y la TA comprendida entre los percentiles 10 y 90 para las curvas venezolanas, de acuerdo a edad y sexo; se consideró sobrepeso y obesidad sobre el pc 90 y Pre-hipertensión (Pre-HTA) e hipertensión arterial (HTA) sobre el pc 90. Resultados: El 75,3% de los adolescentes presentaron un IMC normal, el 11,2% un IMC bajo y el 13,6% sobrepeso y obesidad. El 1,1% presentò TA sistólica sobre el pc 90 y el 6,3% presentó TA diastólica sobre la norma. No se observó asociación del IMC y de la TA con el sexo ni el estrato socio-económico. Se encontró una alta y significativa asociación entre el sobrepeso/obesidad y la Pre-HTA/HTA (p=0,0001). El riesgo de un adolescente con IMC sobre el pc 90 de presentar Pre-HTA o HTA fue 9,76 veces mayor (Odss ratio) que el adolescente con IMC menor al pc 90 (IC 95%: 4,09-23,27; p=0,0001). Conclusión: Se comprobó una asociación estadística entre el IMC y los valores de TA sistólica y diastólica, por lo que adolescentes que tengan IMC altos deben ser seguidos y sometidos a algún tipo de intervención tendiente a disminuir la incidencia de enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles en la edad adulta.

      Translated abstract

      Objective: To investigate the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and the blood pressure (BP) values in adolescents of the city of Mérida, given its association with the development of non-transmissible chronic diseases in adults. Methods: We studied 385 adolescents, 62.3% female and 37.7% male, between 12 and 15 years of age, with average of 15.17 ± 1.71 years. Anthropometric measures and blood pressure (BP) were taken. The body mass index (BMI) was calculated. BMI and BP between 10th and 90th percentile from Venezuelan curves, according to age and sex, were considered normal. Obesity/overweight and pre-hypertension/hypertension (Pre-HTA/HTA) were considered when the BMI and the BP were located above the 90th percentile. Results: A total of 75.3% of the adolescents had a normal BMI, 11.2% a low BMI and 13.6% had overweight and obesity. The systolic BP was above the 90th percentile in 1.1% and the diastolic BP in 6.3% of the adolescents. No association was observed between BMI and BP with the sex and socio-economic stratum. It was found a high and significant association between overweight/obesity and Pre-HTA/HTA (p=0.0001). The risk for Pre-HTA/HTA of an adolescent with a BMI over 90th percentile was 9.76 times higher (Odss ratio) than in adolescents with a BMI less than 90th percentile (95% CI 4.09-23.27; p = 0.0001). Conclusion: It was found a statistical association between BMI and the values of systolic and diastolic BP. Those adolescents with high BMI should be monitored and subject to any intervention aimed at reducing the incidence of non-transmissible chronic diseases in adulthood.

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      Most cited references 54

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      Antropometrics standards for the assessment of growth and nutritional status

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        Progress and challenges in metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association Atherosclerosis, Hypertension, and Obesity in the Young Committee of the Council on Cardiovascular Disease in the Young; Council on Cardiovascular Nursing; and Council on Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Metabolism.

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          Obesity hypertension in children: a problem of epidemic proportions.

          Obesity has become an increasingly important medical problem in children and adolescents. In national surveys from the 1960s to the 1990s, the prevalence of overweight in children grew from 5% to 11%. Outcomes related to childhood obesity include hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, left ventricular hypertrophy, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, obstructive sleep apnea, orthopedic problems, and psychosocial problems. Once considered rare, primary hypertension in children has become increasingly common in association with obesity and other risk factors, including a family history of hypertension and an ethnic predisposition to hypertensive disease. Obese children are at approximately a 3-fold higher risk for hypertension than nonobese children. In addition, the risk of hypertension in children increases across the entire range of body mass index (BMI) values and is not defined by a simple threshold effect. As in adults, a combination of factors including overactivity of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS), insulin resistance, and abnormalities in vascular structure and function may contribute to obesity-related hypertension in children. The benefits of weight loss for blood pressure reduction in children have been demonstrated in both observational and interventional studies. Obesity in childhood should be considered a chronic medical condition that is likely to require long-term management. Ultimately, prevention of obesity and its complications, including hypertension, is the goal.
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            [1 ] Universidad de Los Andes
            [2 ] Universidad de Los Andes
            [3 ] Universidad de Los Andes Venezuela
            Contributors
            Role: ND
            Role: ND
            Role: ND
            Role: ND
            Role: ND
            Role: ND
            Role: ND
            Role: ND
            Journal
            rvdem
            Revista Venezolana de Endocrinología y Metabolismo
            Rev. Venez. Endocrinol. Metab.
            Sociedad Venezolana de Endocrinología y Metabolismo (Mérida )
            1690-3110
            June 2009
            : 7
            : 2
            : 17-24
            S1690-31102009000200003

            http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

            Product
            Product Information: SciELO Venezuela
            Categories
            ENDOCRINOLOGY & METABOLISM

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