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      Effect of Brazil Nut Supplementation on Plasma Levels of Selenium in Hemodialysis Patients: 12 Months of Follow-up

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          Abstract

          Large amounts of reactive oxygen species are produced in hemodialysis (HD) patients, and, at higher concentrations, reactive oxygen species are thought to be involved in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. It has been proposed that selenium (Se) may exert an antiatherogenic influence by reducing oxidative stress. The richest known food source of Se is the Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa, family Lecythidaceae), found in the Amazon region.

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          Most cited references20

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          Glutathione peroxidase family - an evolutionary overview.

          Glutathione peroxidases (EC 1.11.1.9 and EC 1.11.1.12) catalyze the reduction of H(2)O(2) or organic hydroperoxides to water or corresponding alcohols using reduced glutathione. Some glutathione peroxidase isozymes have a selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase activity and present a selenocysteine encoded by the opal TGA codon. In the present study, insights into the evolution of the whole glutathione peroxidase gene family were obtained after a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis using the improved number of glutathione peroxidase sequences recorded in the PeroxiBase database (http://peroxidase.isb-sib.ch/index.php). The identification of a common ancestral origin for the diverse glutathione peroxidase clusters was not possible. The complex relationships and evolutionary rates of this gene family suggest that basal glutathione peroxidase classes, present in all kingdoms, have originated from independent evolutionary events such as gene duplication, gene losses, lateral gene transfer among invertebrates and vertebrates or plants. In addition, the present study also emphasizes the possibility of some members being submitted to strong selective forces that probably dictated functional convergences of taxonomically distant groups.
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            EBPG guideline on nutrition.

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              Oxidants in chronic kidney disease.

              Chronic kidney disease is a worldwide public health problem that affects approximately 10% of the US adult population and is associated with a high prevalence of cardiovascular disease and high economic cost. Chronic renal insufficiency, once established, tends to progress to end-stage kidney disease, suggesting some common mechanisms for ultimately causing scarring and further nephron loss. This review defines the term reactive oxygen metabolites (ROM), or oxidants, and presents the available experimental evidence in support of the role of oxidants in diabetic and nondiabetic glomerular disease and their role in tubulointerstitial damage that accompanies progression. It concludes by reviewing the limited human data that provide some proof of concept that the observations in experimental models may be relevant to human disease.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Journal of Renal Nutrition
                Journal of Renal Nutrition
                Elsevier BV
                10512276
                July 2012
                July 2012
                : 22
                : 4
                : 434-439
                Article
                10.1053/j.jrn.2011.08.011
                22217537
                8c5e859f-ca98-47bd-9de8-1f7f98418aaf
                © 2012

                http://www.elsevier.com/tdm/userlicense/1.0/

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