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      Prevalence of Undiagnosed Hypertension and Associated Factors among Adults in Mizan-Aman Town, Bench Sheko Zone, Southwest Ethiopia: A Community-Based Cross-Sectional Study

      1 , 2 ,
      Advances in Medicine

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          This study aimed to assess the prevalence of undiagnosed hypertension and associated factors among people aged 18 years and above in Mizan-Aman town of Bench Sheko Zone in Southwest Ethiopia. Study Design. A community-based cross-sectional study design was carried out among people aged 18 years old and above from April 1 to 30, 2021, in Mizan Aman town.


          A community-based cross-sectional study design was carried out among people aged 18 years old and above from April 1 to 30, 2021, in Mizan Aman town. Seven hundred fifty-nine subjects were selected by the multistage sampling technique. A structured pretested STEPwise questionnaire was used to interview the participants. Data entry and analysis were done using EpiData 3.1 and SPSS version 25 statistical software, respectively. Descriptive analysis was undertaken, and the results were presented using frequency tables, graphs, and statistical summaries. The dependent variable has a dichotomized response of yes and no, and hence binary logistic regression was used to predict a dependent variable based on independent variables, and predictors having p ≤ 0.25 on the bivariable analysis were considered as candidates for the multivariable analysis. Odds ratios with their 95% confidence intervals were calculated to measure the strength of association, and finally a p value <0.05 was considered statistically significant.


          The prevalence of undiagnosed hypertension was 14.8% with 95% CI [12.3–15.6]. Older age (AOR = 3.1, 95% CI [1.5–6.5]), male (AOR = 2.2, 95% CI [1.3–3.9]), low physical activity (AOR = 3.9, 95% CI [1.8–8.3]), low consumption of fruit and vegetable (AOR = 4.5, 95% CI [2.4–8.8]), and higher BMI (AOR = 2.7, 95% CI [1.6–4.6]) were significantly associated with undiagnosed hypertension.


          The current study outlined that the prevalence of undiagnosed hypertension was high in the study area. In addition, most of the risk factors identified were modifiable, and hence community-based preventive approaches like lifestyle modification, increasing awareness, and strengthening routine screening at primary health service facilities resulted in a substantial change in tackling the burden effectively.

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          Most cited references40

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          A comparative risk assessment of burden of disease and injury attributable to 67 risk factors and risk factor clusters in 21 regions, 1990–2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010

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            Global Burden of Hypertension and Systolic Blood Pressure of at Least 110 to 115 mm Hg, 1990-2015

            Elevated systolic blood (SBP) pressure is a leading global health risk. Quantifying the levels of SBP is important to guide prevention policies and interventions.
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              Obesity and cardiovascular disease: pathophysiology, evaluation, and effect of weight loss: an update of the 1997 American Heart Association Scientific Statement on Obesity and Heart Disease from the Obesity Committee of the Council on Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Metabolism.

              Obesity is becoming a global epidemic in both children and adults. It is associated with numerous comorbidities such as cardiovascular diseases (CVD), type 2 diabetes, hypertension, certain cancers, and sleep apnea/sleep-disordered breathing. In fact, obesity is an independent risk factor for CVD, and CVD risks have also been documented in obese children. Obesity is associated with an increased risk of morbidity and mortality as well as reduced life expectancy. Health service use and medical costs associated with obesity and related diseases have risen dramatically and are expected to continue to rise. Besides an altered metabolic profile, a variety of adaptations/alterations in cardiac structure and function occur in the individual as adipose tissue accumulates in excess amounts, even in the absence of comorbidities. Hence, obesity may affect the heart through its influence on known risk factors such as dyslipidemia, hypertension, glucose intolerance, inflammatory markers, obstructive sleep apnea/hypoventilation, and the prothrombotic state, in addition to as-yet-unrecognized mechanisms. On the whole, overweight and obesity predispose to or are associated with numerous cardiac complications such as coronary heart disease, heart failure, and sudden death because of their impact on the cardiovascular system. The pathophysiology of these entities that are linked to obesity will be discussed. However, the cardiovascular clinical evaluation of obese patients may be limited because of the morphology of the individual. In this statement, we review the available evidence of the impact of obesity on CVD with emphasis on the evaluation of cardiac structure and function in obese patients and the effect of weight loss on the cardiovascular system.

                Author and article information

                Adv Med
                Adv Med
                Advances in Medicine
                10 July 2023
                : 2023
                : 2746284
                1Public Health Department, College of Health Sciences, Mizan-Aman College of Health Science, Mizan-Aman, Ethiopia
                2Department of Epidemiology, Faculty of Public Health, Institute of Health, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia
                Author notes

                Academic Editor: Rahman Shiri

                Author information
                Copyright © 2023 Sebsibe Elias and Teshome Kabeta Dadi.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                : 9 November 2022
                : 27 March 2023
                : 30 June 2023
                Research Article


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