A series of polypropylene hollow fiber membranes was fabricated by melt-spinning and stretching. The crystalline behavior and hard elasticity of precursor hollow fibers were studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), elastic recovery and strain-stress curves. The structure and properties of membranes were investigated in detail by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), optical microscopy, pure water flux, and so on. The results showed that membranes with excellent structure and properties can be obtained at a spin-draw rate of 350 m/min and a stretching ratio of 200 %. The evolution of crystal structure was explored during the annealing and stretching processes by two-dimensional small-angle X-ray scattering (2D-SAXS). Shish-kebab structure was obtained during annealing for hollow fibers at a spin-draw rate of 350 m/min. The crystalline lamellae were destroyed and micropores were formed during the fabrication of membranes by stretching.