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      Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis

      1 , 1
      New England Journal of Medicine
      New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM/MMS)

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          A common MUC5B promoter polymorphism and pulmonary fibrosis.

          The mutations that have been implicated in pulmonary fibrosis account for only a small proportion of the population risk. Using a genomewide linkage scan, we detected linkage between idiopathic interstitial pneumonia and a 3.4-Mb region of chromosome 11p15 in 82 families. We then evaluated genetic variation in this region in gel-forming mucin genes expressed in the lung among 83 subjects with familial interstitial pneumonia, 492 subjects with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, and 322 controls. MUC5B expression was assessed in lung tissue. Linkage and fine mapping were used to identify a region of interest on the p-terminus of chromosome 11 that included gel-forming mucin genes. The minor-allele of the single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs35705950, located 3 kb upstream of the MUC5B transcription start site, was present at a frequency of 34% among subjects with familial interstitial pneumonia, 38% among subjects with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, and 9% among controls (allelic association with familial interstitial pneumonia, P=1.2×10(-15); allelic association with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, P=2.5×10(-37)). The odds ratios for disease among subjects who were heterozygous and those who were homozygous for the minor allele of this SNP were 6.8 (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.9 to 12.0) and 20.8 (95% CI, 3.8 to 113.7), respectively, for familial interstitial pneumonia and 9.0 (95% CI, 6.2 to 13.1) and 21.8 (95% CI, 5.1 to 93.5), respectively, for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. MUC5B expression in the lung was 14.1 times as high in subjects who had idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis as in those who did not (P<0.001). The variant allele of rs35705950 was associated with up-regulation in MUC5B expression in the lung in unaffected subjects (expression was 37.4 times as high as in unaffected subjects homozygous for the wild-type allele, P<0.001). MUC5B protein was expressed in lesions of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. A common polymorphism in the promoter of MUC5B is associated with familial interstitial pneumonia and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Our findings suggest that dysregulated MUC5B expression in the lung may be involved in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis. (Funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and others.).
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            Telomerase mutations in families with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

            Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is progressive and often fatal; causes of familial clustering of the disease are unknown. Germ-line mutations in the genes hTERT and hTR, encoding telomerase reverse transcriptase and telomerase RNA, respectively, cause autosomal dominant dyskeratosis congenita, a rare hereditary disorder associated with premature death from aplastic anemia and pulmonary fibrosis. To test the hypothesis that familial idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis may be caused by short telomeres, we screened 73 probands from the Vanderbilt Familial Pulmonary Fibrosis Registry for mutations in hTERT and hTR. Six probands (8%) had heterozygous mutations in hTERT or hTR; mutant telomerase resulted in short telomeres. Asymptomatic subjects with mutant telomerase also had short telomeres, suggesting that they may be at risk for the disease. We did not identify any of the classic features of dyskeratosis congenita in five of the six families. Mutations in the genes encoding telomerase components can appear as familial idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Our findings support the idea that pathways leading to telomere shortening are involved in the pathogenesis of this disease. Copyright 2007 Massachusetts Medical Society.
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              Diagnostic criteria for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: a Fleischner Society White Paper

              This Review provides an updated approach to the diagnosis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), based on a systematic search of the medical literature and the expert opinion of members of the Fleischner Society. A checklist is provided for the clinical evaluation of patients with suspected usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP). The role of CT is expanded to permit diagnosis of IPF without surgical lung biopsy in select cases when CT shows a probable UIP pattern. Additional investigations, including surgical lung biopsy, should be considered in patients with either clinical or CT findings that are indeterminate for IPF. A multidisciplinary approach is particularly important when deciding to perform additional diagnostic assessments, integrating biopsy results with clinical and CT features, and establishing a working diagnosis of IPF if lung tissue is not available. A working diagnosis of IPF should be reviewed at regular intervals since the diagnosis might change. Criteria are presented to establish confident and working diagnoses of IPF.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                New England Journal of Medicine
                N Engl J Med
                New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM/MMS)
                0028-4793
                1533-4406
                May 10 2018
                May 10 2018
                : 378
                : 19
                : 1811-1823
                Affiliations
                [1 ]From the Departments of Medicine and Epidemiology, Columbia University Irving Medical Center (D.J.L.), and the Department of Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical Center (F.J.M.) — both in New York.
                Article
                10.1056/NEJMra1705751
                29742380
                8c6d6832-927a-495f-bde4-1dc40acb1b77
                © 2018
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