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      Dynamic transcription profiles of “Qinguan” apple ( Malus × domestica) leaves in response to Marssonina coronaria inoculation

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          Abstract

          Marssonina apple blotch, caused by the fungus Marssonina coronaria, is one of the most destructive apple diseases in China and East Asia. A better understanding of the plant's response to fungi during pathogenesis is urgently needed to improve plant resistance and to breed resistant cultivars. To address this, the transcriptomes of “Qinguan” (a cultivar with high resistance to M. coronaria) apple leaves were sequenced at 12, 24, 48, and 72 h post-inoculation (hpi) with Marssonina coronaria. The comparative results showed that a total of 1956 genes were differentially expressed between the inoculated and control samples at the 4 time points. Gene ontology (GO) term enrichment analysis of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) revealed changes in cellular component, secondary metabolism including chalcone isomerase activity, phytoalexin biosynthetic process, anthocyanin-containing compound biosynthetic process, lignin biosynthetic process, positive regulation of flavonoid biosynthetic process; and molecular functions or biological processes related to the defense response, biotic stimulus response, wounding response and fungus response. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis showed that DEGs were significantly enriched in flavonoid biosynthesis, vitamin B6 metabolism, phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, and the stilbenoid, diarylheptanoid and gingerol biosynthesis pathways. Furthermore, the importance of changes in cellular components and partial polyphenol compounds when encountering M. coronaria are discussed.

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          Most cited references 37

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          Gene ontology: tool for the unification of biology. The Gene Ontology Consortium.

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            Bi-directional protein transport between the ER and Golgi.

            The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the Golgi comprise the first two steps in protein secretion. Vesicular carriers mediate a continuous flux of proteins and lipids between these compartments, reflecting the transport of newly synthesized proteins out of the ER and the retrieval of escaped ER residents and vesicle machinery. Anterograde and retrograde transport is mediated by distinct sets of cytosolic coat proteins, the COPII and COPI coats, respectively, which act on the membrane to capture cargo proteins into nascent vesicles. We review the mechanisms that govern coat recruitment to the membrane, cargo capture into a transport vesicle, and accurate delivery to the target organelle.
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              Cell wall-associated mechanisms of disease resistance and susceptibility.

              The plant cuticle and cell wall separate microbial pathogens from the products of plant metabolism. While microbial pathogens try to breach these barriers for colonization, plants respond to attempted penetration by a battery of wall-associated defense reactions. Successful pathogens circumvent or suppress plant nonself recognition and basal defense during penetration and during microbial reproduction. Additionally, accommodation of fungal infection structures within intact cells requires host reprogramming. Recent data highlight that both early plant defense to fungal penetration and host reprogramming for susceptibility can function at the host cell periphery. Genetic evidence has also widened our understanding of how fungal pathogens are restricted during penetration at the plant cell wall. This review summarizes the current view of how plants monitor and model their cell periphery during interaction with microbial invaders.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Front Plant Sci
                Front Plant Sci
                Front. Plant Sci.
                Frontiers in Plant Science
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                1664-462X
                13 October 2015
                2015
                : 6
                Affiliations
                The Department of Pomology, College of Horticulture, Northwest A&F University Yangling, China
                Author notes

                Edited by: Marinus J. M. Smulders, Wageningen UR, Netherlands

                Reviewed by: Cai-Zhong Jiang, United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, USA; Estefanía Carrillo, Universidad Nacional de Chimborazo, Ecuador

                *Correspondence: Junke Zhang zhangjk@ 123456nwsuaf.edu.cn

                This article was submitted to Crop Science and Horticulture, a section of the journal Frontiers in Plant Science

                Article
                10.3389/fpls.2015.00842
                4602106
                Copyright © 2015 Xu, Li, Jiao, Tao, Wei, Ma and Zhang.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 3, Equations: 0, References: 57, Pages: 11, Words: 7212
                Categories
                Plant Science
                Original Research

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