Drug-induced acute hemolytic anemia led to the discovery of G6PD deficiency. However, most clinical data are from isolated case reports. In 2 clinical trials of antimalarial preparations containing dapsone (4,4'-diaminodiphenylsulfone; 2.5 mg/kg once daily for 3 days), 95 G6PD-deficient hemizygous boys, 24 G6PD-deficient homozygous girls, and 200 girls heterozygous for G6PD deficiency received this agent. In the first 2 groups, there was a maximum decrease in hemoglobin averaging -2.64 g/dL (range -6.70 to +0.30 g/dL), which was significantly greater than for the comparator group receiving artemether-lumefantrine (adjusted difference -1.46 g/dL; 95% confidence interval -1.76, -1.15). Hemoglobin concentrations were decreased by ≥ 40% versus pretreatment in 24/119 (20.2%) of the G6PD-deficient children; 13/119 (10.9%) required blood transfusion. In the heterozygous girls, the mean maximum decrease in hemoglobin was -1.83 g/dL (range +0.90 to -5.20 g/dL); 1 in 200 (0.5%) required blood transfusion. All children eventually recovered. All the G6PD-deficient children had the G6PD A- variant, ie, mutations V68M and N126D. Drug-induced acute hemolytic anemia in G6PD A- subjects can be life-threatening, depending on the nature and dosage of the drug trigger. Therefore, contrary to current perception, in clinical terms the A- type of G6PD deficiency cannot be regarded as mild. This study is registered at http://www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00344006 and NCT00371735.