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      The Insulin-Like Growth Factor I Generation Test in Adults

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          Abstract

          The insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) generation test has the potential to assess the ability of an individual to respond to an acute bolus of growth hormone (GH), in terms of IGF-I, IGF-binding protein 3 and acid-labile subunit responses. This article will discuss something of the history of the IGF-I generation test, and review some of the major studies to date. The IGF-I generation test was first used in adults by Lieberman et al., who studied the effects of ageing and oestrogen administration, and suggested that decreased responsiveness to GH occurs with increasing age and oral oestrogen administration. Our results, however, show that, while activity of the GH/IGF-I axis declines with age, peripheral responsiveness to GH is not affected. As in the Lieberman study, we found that oral oestrogen replacement reduces responses of GH-dependent peptides to GH stimulation in healthy post-menopausal women. Transdermal oestrogen administration also reduced responsiveness to GH, although to a lesser degree than orally administered oestrogen. In addition, utilizing a non-weight-based dose of GH we have demonstrated that obese individuals produce greater increases in IGF-I following an acute bolus of GH. In GH deficiency (GHD), data suggesting enhanced peripheral responsiveness should be interpreted with caution, and with awareness of differences between these groups in terms of age and obesity. The IGF-I generation test may allow a fresh approach to unanswered questions in the field of GHD, but as the IGF-I response to GH is not strictly associated with protein anabolism or clinical benefit, the question remains whether this test will predict the effect of longer-term GH administration.

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          Most cited references 19

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          Normal growth and development in the absence of hepatic insulin-like growth factor I.

          The somatomedin hypothesis proposed that insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) was a hepatically derived circulating mediator of growth hormone and is a crucial factor for postnatal growth and development. To reassess this hypothesis, we have used the Cre/loxP recombination system to delete the igf1 gene exclusively in the liver. igf1 gene deletion in the liver abrogated expression of igf1 mRNA and caused a dramatic reduction in circulating IGF-I levels. However, growth as determined by body weight, body length, and femoral length did not differ from wild-type littermates. Although our model proves that hepatic IGF-I is indeed the major contributor to circulating IGF-I levels in mice it challenges the concept that circulating IGF-I is crucial for normal postnatal growth. Rather, our model provides direct evidence for the importance of the autocrine/paracrine role of IGF-I.
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            Age and relative adiposity are specific negative determinants of the frequency and amplitude of growth hormone (GH) secretory bursts and the half-life of endogenous GH in healthy men.

            Mean plasma GH concentrations are controlled by the frequency, amplitude, and duration of underlying GH secretory bursts as well as by the half-life of endogenous GH. We investigated the specific mechanisms that subserve the clinically recognized negative effects of age and adiposity on mean serum GH concentrations. To this end, 21 healthy men, aged 21-71 yr, who were of nearly normal body weight underwent blood sampling at 10-min intervals for 24 h. Deconvolution analysis was used to estimate specific features of GH secretion and clearance. Compared to younger men, the older tertile of men had significant reductions in 1) GH secretory burst frequency, 2) the half-life of endogenous GH, and 3) the daily GH secretory rate, but not 4) GH secretory burst half-duration, amplitude, or mass. Linear regression analysis disclosed that age was a major negative statistical determinant of GH secretory burst frequency (r = -0.80; P = 0.005) and endogenous GH half-life (r = -0.70; P = 0.024). Body mass index, an indicator of relative obesity, was a significant negative correlate of GH half-life (P = 0.045) and GH secretory burst amplitude (P = 0.031). Age and body mass index each correlated negatively with the daily GH secretion rate (P = 0.0031 and P = 0.027, respectively), and together accounted for more than 60% of the variability in 24-h GH production rates (r = -0.78; P = 0.00056). On the average, for a normal body mass index, each decade of increasing age attenuated the GH production rate by 14% and the GH half-life by 6%. Conversely, each unit increase in body mass index, at a given age, reduced the daily GH secretion rate by 6%. We conclude that age and relative adiposity are distinct and specific correlates of individual attributes of GH secretion and clearance in men.
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              Consensus Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Adults with Growth Hormone Deficiency: Summary Statement of the Growth Hormone Research Society Workshop on Adult Growth Hormone Deficiency

               ; (1998)
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                HRE
                Horm Res Paediatr
                10.1159/issn.1663-2818
                Hormone Research in Paediatrics
                S. Karger AG
                978-3-8055-7837-0
                978-3-318-01157-9
                1663-2818
                1663-2826
                2004
                February 2005
                10 March 2005
                : 62
                : Suppl 1
                : 44-49
                Affiliations
                Department of Endocrinology, Christie Hospital, Manchester, UK
                Article
                80758 Horm Res 2004;62(suppl 1):44–49
                10.1159/000080758
                15761232
                © 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 3, References: 24, Pages: 6
                Categories
                Efficacy

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