The physiology of a cell can be viewed as the product of thousands of proteins acting in concert to shape the cellular response. Coordination is achieved in part through networks of protein-protein interactions that assemble functionally related proteins into complexes, organelles, and signal transduction pathways. Understanding the architecture of the human proteome has the potential to inform cellular, structural, and evolutionary mechanisms and is critical to elucidation of how genome variation contributes to disease 1–3 . Here, we present BioPlex 2.0 (Biophysical Interactions of ORFEOME-derived complexes), which employs robust affinity purification-mass spectrometry (AP-MS) methodology 4 to elucidate protein interaction networks and co-complexes nucleated by more than 25% of protein coding genes from the human genome, and constitutes the largest such network to date. With >56,000 candidate interactions, BioPlex 2.0 contains >29,000 previously unknown co-associations and provides functional insights into hundreds of poorly characterized proteins while enhancing network-based analyses of domain associations, subcellular localization, and co-complex formation. Unsupervised Markov clustering (MCL) 5 of interacting proteins identified more than 1300 protein communities representing diverse cellular activities. Genes essential for cell fitness 6,7 are enriched within 53 communities representing central cellular functions. Moreover, we identified 442 communities associated with more than 2000 disease annotations, placing numerous candidate disease genes into a cellular framework. BioPlex 2.0 exceeds previous experimentally derived interaction networks in depth and breadth, and will be a valuable resource for exploring the biology of incompletely characterized proteins and for elucidating larger-scale patterns of proteome organization.