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      The HSP90 chaperone machinery

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      Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology

      Springer Nature

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          Abstract

          The heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) chaperone machinery is a key regulator of proteostasis. Recent progress has shed light on the interactions of HSP90 with its clients and co-chaperones, and on their functional implications. This opens up new avenues for the development of drugs that target HSP90, which could be valuable for the treatment of cancers and protein-misfolding diseases.

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          Most cited references 164

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          Hsp90 as a capacitor of phenotypic variation.

          Heat-shock protein 90 (Hsp90) chaperones the maturation of many regulatory proteins and, in the fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster, buffers genetic variation in morphogenetic pathways. Levels and patterns of genetic variation differ greatly between obligatorily outbreeding species such as fruitflies and self-fertilizing species such as the plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Also, plant development is more plastic, being coupled to environmental cues. Here we report that, in Arabidopsis accessions and recombinant inbred lines, reducing Hsp90 function produces an array of morphological phenotypes, which are dependent on underlying genetic variation. The strength and breadth of Hsp90's effects on the buffering and release of genetic variation suggests it may have an impact on evolutionary processes. We also show that Hsp90 influences morphogenetic responses to environmental cues and buffers normal development from destabilizing effects of stochastic processes. Manipulating Hsp90's buffering capacity offers a tool for harnessing cryptic genetic variation and for elucidating the interplay between genotypes, environments and stochastic events in the determination of phenotype.
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            Quantitative analysis of HSP90-client interactions reveals principles of substrate recognition.

            HSP90 is a molecular chaperone that associates with numerous substrate proteins called clients. It plays many important roles in human biology and medicine, but determinants of client recognition by HSP90 have remained frustratingly elusive. We systematically and quantitatively surveyed most human kinases, transcription factors, and E3 ligases for interaction with HSP90 and its cochaperone CDC37. Unexpectedly, many more kinases than transcription factors bound HSP90. CDC37 interacted with kinases, but not with transcription factors or E3 ligases. HSP90::kinase interactions varied continuously over a 100-fold range and provided a platform to study client protein recognition. In wild-type clients, HSP90 did not bind particular sequence motifs, but rather associated with intrinsically unstable kinases. Stabilization of the kinase in either its active or inactive conformation with diverse small molecules decreased HSP90 association. Our results establish HSP90 client recognition as a combinatorial process: CDC37 provides recognition of the kinase family, whereas thermodynamic parameters determine client binding within the family. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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              Structure of TPR domain-peptide complexes: critical elements in the assembly of the Hsp70-Hsp90 multichaperone machine.

              The adaptor protein Hop mediates the association of the molecular chaperones Hsp70 and Hsp90. The TPR1 domain of Hop specifically recognizes the C-terminal heptapeptide of Hsp70 while the TPR2A domain binds the C-terminal pentapeptide of Hsp90. Both sequences end with the motif EEVD. The crystal structures of the TPR-peptide complexes show the peptides in an extended conformation, spanning a groove in the TPR domains. Peptide binding is mediated by electrostatic interactions with the EEVD motif, with the C-terminal aspartate acting as a two-carboxylate anchor, and by hydrophobic interactions with residues upstream of EEVD. The hydrophobic contacts with the peptide are critical for specificity. These results explain how TPR domains participate in the ordered assembly of Hsp70-Hsp90 multichaperone complexes.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology
                Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol
                Springer Nature
                1471-0072
                1471-0080
                April 21 2017
                April 21 2017
                :
                :
                Article
                10.1038/nrm.2017.20
                28429788
                © 2017
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